One unique feature of spermiogenesis is the restart of

One unique feature of spermiogenesis is the restart of transcription in haploid spermatids. In previous study, we confirmed by an in vitro run-on assay that transcription continued in Step 1�C7 round spermatids, but gradually decreased in Step 8�C9, which was finally shut down at Step 10. The transcriptional product of this period could be very important for the later spermatid development, even for the fertilization and early embryogenesis. It should be noticed that transcription was terminated long after meiosis completed so as it was not coupled to cell cycles. In order to explore the cause of transcription cessation in spermatids, we detected the dynamics of representative transcriptional factors and regulators throughout the spermiogenesis. We found these proteins removed from the chromatin synchronously with the transcription silence. In addition, an extensive range of chromatin associated factors, 1051375-16-6 including essential transcription factors and regulators, remodeling factors, epigenetic modifiers, were found mostly departed from the chromatin before Step 9. In conclusion, during the reprogramming of spermiogenesis, there was a finely orchestrated dissociation of types of CAFs, which might 133085-33-3 contribute directly to the closure of transcription. This process could erase the paternal epigenetic pattern and generate a relative na?��ve chromatin. A much similar erasure program was also observed in the late oogenesis. Taken together, this reprogramming during gametogenesis would be essential for the installation of the zygotic developmental program after fertilization. At this moment, the regulation of this erasure procedure was mostly unknown. In another aspect, histone modifications dynamically modulate chromatin structure, conducting the chromatin binding of functional molecules. We wonder if the disassociation of CAFs is causally related to the changes of epigenome in spermatids. Generally, acetylation of histones, especially acetylated histone H3 and H4, are considered as markers of open configuration of chromatin. During mouse spermiogenesis, the substantial expression of AcH4 was observed in step 1�C8 round spermatids, followed by a global hyperacetylation in Step 9�C12 elongating spermatids. A similar hyperacetylation wave of histones was also