Racellular ATP decreases both P2 receptor mediated signallin

Racellular ATP decreases both P2 receptor mediated signalling and alters the extracellular Pi/PPi concentration. In summary, the work presented here shows that ATP released from osteoblasts acts via P2 receptors or degradation by NPP1 to produce PPi, so as to function as an endogenous restraint on bone mineralisation. Our findings also raise the interesting question of whether ATP released from osteocytes could be hydrolysed to PPi and thus act to prevent hypermineralisation within bone. Furthermore, since ATP is released constitutively from most cell types these data raise the possibility that extracellular ATP may act to prevent the mineralisation of soft tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first study that compared the incidence of complicated 81485-25-8 cholelithiasis GS-9620 between patients receiving ATV/r and those on other PIs. The incidence of cholelithiasis in the ATV/r group was low at person-years and was not statistically different from that in the other PIs groups based on uni- and multi-variate analyses. Previous reports suggested the association between ATV/r use and cholelithiasis. However, the association was not demonstrated in this cohort study of 1,242 patients. Rakotondravelo et al. reported 14 cases of PI-related cholelithiasis. Although their study was not designed to calculate the incidence, the estimated incidence was 2.3 cases per 1000 person-years, which is similar to our result. This incidence is 10 times lower than that of ATV/r-associated renal stones reported in our previous study. In fact, only 16 cases with ATV/r-induced cholelithiasis have been reported to date, compared with substantial number of ATV/r-associated renal stone reported by several groups. Thus, the potential risk of cholelithiasis in patients on PIs seems low compared to urolithiasis and may not be a major factor in the selection of ART. Siveke et al. suggested that all PIs could cause cholelithiasis based on cases that developed cholelithiasis while on PIscontaining ART. It is possible that PIs other than ATV/r also contribute to the development of cholelithiasis. However, this cannot be confirmed at this stage and further studies are needed to address this issue. The exact mechanism of ATV/r-induced cholelithiasis is not fully understood, although several theories have been