With propidium iodide followed by confocal microscopic optical sectioning

Proteins can be designed to bind to specific sequences of DNA, allowing ZFNs to induce double- or single-strand breaks in specific regions of a genome. Such ZFN-induced breaks can induce mutations in genes of interest through errorprone non-homologous end joining or lead to the modification of genes by homologous recombination in the presence of donor DNA or single-stranded oligonucleotides. Such targeted-genome purchase Sch 66336 editing approaches have been carried out across a variety of species, including fruit flies, nematodes, fish, rats, plants, and human cells. Genetic modifications derived from ZFN technology greatly facilitate the ATL-962 investigation of biological processes. In addition, ZFN technology is actively being studied as a means of advanced gene therapy to correct pathogenic genes. One of the biggest roadblocks to the application of ZFNs is the relatively low efficiency of gene editing by ZFNs. Thus, several approaches have been undertaken to improve ZFN function. For example, the ZFN nuclease domain has been modified to improve ZFN activity and specificity. Additionally, modifying the culture temperature caused a significant increase in ZFN activity. Furthermore, our group recently reported a simple method to enrich cells that contain ZFN-induced gene disruptions. Given that these simple methods to improve the ZFN function have facilitated the use of ZFNs, the identification of small molecules that increase ZFN function should likewise efficiently facilitate the application of ZFNs. However, such small molecules have yet to be identified. It has been observed that ZFN protein levels are directly correlated with ZFN function. Culturing the cells at low temperature increases ZFN function at least in part because ZFN protein levels increase. We also observed that cell populations that are enriched with gene-disrupted cells have high ZFN levels as compared to control cells. Recently, direct delivery of ZFN proteins has been shown to be safer associated with negligible offtarget effects. These ZFN proteins could penetrate the cells without any additional cell-penetrating peptide sequences and were able to transduce into several cell types including those that are hard to transfect. However, due to degradation of the delivered protein, it was necessary to treat the ce

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