The Iw1 and Iw2 also present such an example for chromosome

to inhibit mGPDH. However, many are membrane impermeant, none are selective, and, as we show for the potent competitive inhibitor glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, can be non-selective even in isolated mitochondria. Therefore, our novel class of inhibitors offers the first opportunity to acutely test the role of mGPDH activity in a more diverse range of physiological conditions. Small-molecule screening for modulators of mitochondrial H2O2 production proved to be an effective strategy for identifying selective inhibitors of mGPDH. The design of the purchase 1621523-07-6 different assays of mitochondrial H2O2 production and DYm executed in parallel during primary screening and retesting provided multiple filters through which non-selective hits were readily eliminated. Three of the top seven most selective mGPDH inhibitors shared significant structural similarity and the most potent inhibitor in the initial screen, iGP-1, turned out to be the most selective of all the potent analogs identified during subsequent retesting. The design of our screening and retesting strategy also meant that partial selectivity in certain assays yielded insights into potential mechanisms of offtarget effects. Combining these insights into an analysis of structure/activity relationships, we revealed that both the succinamic acid and benzimidazole motifs are essential components for mGPDH inhibition by iGPs. Importantly, this analysis identified the benzimidazole ring system as the best candidate for further manipulations to improve both potency and selectivity. In particular, changing or removing the heteroatoms of the imidazole might improve selectivity whereas added substituents to the ring system may provide a means to improve both qualities. We were not able to explore targeted changes to the chemical space MI-77301 occupied by either the linking phenyl group or the succinamide group that did not involve loss of the terminal carboxylic acid. Therefore, these motifs may also provide additional opportunities for improved activity. Enzyme kinetics revealed that iGPs share a common mechanism of mixed inhibition with respect to glycerol 3-phosphate and that potency was governed by subtle structural changes. Both iGP- 1

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