To control for day-to-day variability, paired T-tests were used to determine statistical significance

es diluted in 1% BSA for 1 h at RT. Bacteria were then stained with goat anti-mouse and anti-rabbit Alexa Fluor conjugated antibodies for 20 min at RT. Slow Fade reagent kit was then used to mount cover slips. The slides were analysed with a Bio-Rad confocal scanning microscope. Acknowledgments We thank Annarita Taddei for the electron microscopy analysis. We thank Renzo Nogarotto for N-terminal sequencing and Mauro Bombaci for providing the recombinant PulA protein of GAS. We also thank Laura Serino for critical reading of the manuscript and Antonietta Maiorino for careful editing of the manuscript. 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid assay Pullulanase activity was determined by measuring the enzymatic release of reducing groups from a-glucans by the DNS colorimetric method. The Vadimezan site mixtures contained 1% Myocardial infarction occurs with the deprivation of coronary blood and is usually caused by stenosis or occlusion of the coronary artery. The culminating event is necrosis of myocardial tissue and dysfunction of the left ventricle. Bone-marrow-derived stem cells, including endothelial progenitor cells, are attractive targets for repair of the ischemic myocardium. EPCs can home to ischemic tissues and contribute to therapeutic angiogenesis. Many EPCs agonists such as granulocytecolony stimulating factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and statins, can mobilize EPCs in bone marrow. However adverse reactions, such as increased vascular permeability and high ratio of restenosis and liver damage, limit their use for 20171952 MI. A safe EPC activator is needed for MI therapy. Activated EPCs first migrate to the ischemic tissue for their roles. Stromal-derived factor-1 is the only known chemokine capable of migration of hematopoietic stem cells, as the fluctuations in SDF-1 expression controlled the fluctuated steady-state of HSCs and their progenitors in peripheral blood. Among these, the SDF-1a and its receptor 4 play a key role in mobilization and migration of EPCs. After MI, SDF-1a/CXCR4 interaction plays a crucial role in recruiting EPCs to the ischemic myocardium, the increased CXCR4 expression lead to increased EPCs homing to the ischemic zone and participated in therapeutic angiogenesis. These suggest that the SDF-1a/CXCR4 cascade is critical for the regulation of EPCs, and it might be an important therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases especially in MI. 1 Rehmannia Glutinosa Protected Infarcted Myoccardim Rehmannia glutinosa, belongs to the family of Scrophulariaceae, is a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal herb. It has been used to treat hypodynamia caused by many kinds of diseases for thousands of years in China, Japan, Korea and many other Asian countries. It has been effective and safe, but the involved mechanism has not been verified. Recently, Rehmannia glutinosa extract has been used in modern medicine studies. RGE can stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow and increase the numbers of leucocytes, thrombocytes, reticulocytes and DNA content of bone marrow. Furthermore, RGE can antagonize myocardial cell death induced by caspase-3 activation, thus protecting the ischemic myocardium. Our preliminary experiments 15771452 in rat showed an increase in number of EPCs in blood and bone marrow after oral administration of RGE. These suggested that RGE had effect on EPCs. In this study, we used the rat MI model to imitate the pathological changes after MI and observed the effects of RGE on preserv

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