Although it seems likely that the effect of sodium butyrate on LP BER is mediated at least in part by increased acetylation of WRN

of glioma cancer stem cells Based on the requirement of c-Myc activity for cell cycle progression, growth and survival, of CD133+ glioma cells in 4 Myc Regulates Cancer Stem Cell culture, we examined the role of c-Myc expression in their tumorigenic potential. CD133+ glioma cells were infected with non-targeting control lentivirus or lentivirus expressing c-Myc shRNA. Following puromycin selection, 5000 cells of each group were injected into the brains of nude mouse in quadruplicate. 100% of mice bearing control cells rapidly developed neurologic signs and displayed large tumors on histopathology composed of pleomorphic cells featuring high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios, prominent nucleoli with minimal cytoplasm, brisk mitotic activity and central geographic necrosis, consistent with a high grade glial malignancy. In contrast, no mice injected with cells depleted of c-Myc expression developed signs and after 100 days demonstrated no evidence of neoplastic cells. Thus, cMyc appears to be essential for cancer stem cells to form tumors. Discussion like characteristics and initiate xenograft tumors have been purified from an increasing number of cancers, including leukemia, brain, breast, colorectal, pancreatic, and head and neck cancers. These cancer stem cells are functionally defined through assays of self-renewal and serial xenotransplantation assays in rodent models. Experiments demonstrate that the tumorigenic potential of cancer stem cells is at least several magnitudes higher than the bulk tumors. For 20171952 example, glioma cancer stem cells enriched by selection of the CD133 surface antigen form orthotopic xenograft tumors with 500 cells in athymic nude mice, whereas 26106 CD1332 cells cannot. In line with the potent tumorigenicity of brain tumor stem cells, we demonstrated here that CD133+ glioma cancer stem cells highly expressed the c-Myc oncoprotein. FACS analysis demonstrated that at least half of CD133+ cells acutely dissociated from human surgical biopsy specimens had high levels of c-Myc, whereas the majority of CD1332 cells were c-Myc-low. Similar co-expression of c-Myc and a stem cell marker, Nestin, was identified directly on human surgical biopsy specimen sections. Notably, glioma cancer stem cells Myc Regulates 1328529 Cancer Stem Cell expressing c-Myc shRNA still retained residual levels of c-Myc protein that were higher than the c-Myc levels found in CD1332 cells expressing non-targeting shRNA. Nonetheless, the reduced levels of c-Myc were incapable of supporting proliferation, growth, survival, and tumorigenesis of glioma cancer stem cells. A recent mouse model of T-cell lymphoma using conditionally expressed c-Myc also suggest that certain threshold level of c-Myc is required to maintain the tumor phenotype. Collectively, our results highlight a necessary requirement of high c-Myc expression in glioma cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells have been proposed as slowly cycling cells, like their somatic stem cell counterparts. Rapid expansion of tumors is then dependent on the fast dividing progenitor cells. The slow cell cycle may provide cancer stem cells a protective mechanism against certain LY2109761 web therapeutic approaches that target rapid proliferating cells. For example, in human acute myelogenous leukemia, the quiescent leukemia stem cells are resistant to chemo-drugs that dependent on cell cycle. Nevertheless, characteristics of cancer stem cells may not be necessarily uniform across different cancer types, and the biology of cancer

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