Apoptosis is induced by the activation of a family of cysteine proteases generically known as caspases

PFU/cell of each virus, and maintained either in the presence or absence of IPTG. At 24 h.p.i. infected cell cultures were used to assess the induction of PCD, the status of protein synthesis and the presence of VP2, VP3, and total and P-PKR. As shown in Fig. 5A, whilst the expression of the wild type VP3 polypeptide efficiently prevents the activation of caspases 3 and 7 triggered by VP2 expression, the mutant VP3MutPatch1 protein is not able of preventing this effect. In line with this finding, IPTG-induced cells JNJ-26481585 biological activity coinfected with VT7/VP2+VT7/VP3P1 showed a blockade of protein synthesis akin to that observed in cells coinfected with VT7/VP2+VT7. The results of the WB analysis confirmed the correct expression of the VP3MutPatch1 polypeptide, and showed that the synthesis of this mutant polypeptide does not prevent the accumulation of P-PKR in cells expressing VP2. As observed in Fig. 5B and C, the VP3MutPatch1 mutant polypeptide exhibits a slightly slower SDS-PAGE migration than its wild type counterpart. These results show that the described anti-apoptotic activity of VP3 is dependent upon the presence of a functional Patch1 dsRNA-binding domain. The IBDV VP3 polypeptide rescues the ability of the VACV WRDE3L deletion mutant to replicate in HeLa cells It has been shown that the deletion mutant WRDE3L derived from the VACV WR strain, lacking the E3L gene encoding the E3 polypeptide, is unable to replicate in IFN-competent cell lines including HeLa cells. Interestingly, the insertion of some recombinant genes encoding dsRNA binding proteins from different viruses, e.g. influenza NS1, avian reovirus sigmaA, and porcine rotavirus NSP3, into the genome of WRDE3L leads to the generation of recombinant VACV viruses capable of overcoming the host cell restriction imposed by the lack of the E3L gene. Results described above evoked the possibility that the IBDV VP3 polypeptide might functionally replace E3. To test this hypothesis, the 26617966 VP3 ORF was cloned into the pJR101 VACV insertion/expression plasmid vector under the control of a synthetic early/late VACV promoter. The resulting plasmid, pJR101/VP3, was used generate the recombinant VACV WRDE3L/VP3 by transfection of WRDE3L-infected DF1 cells. The DF1 cells are immortalized chicken embryo fibroblasts permissive for WRDE3L replication. As described in the materials and methods section, the WRDE3L/VP3 recombinant virus expressing the VP3 polypeptide was generated, selected, grown and titrated in DF-1 cells. In order to characterize the ability of the VP3 polypeptide to overcome the blockade of protein synthesis resulting from the absence of the E3L gene in a non-permissive cell line, HeLa cell cultures were infected with WRDE3L/VP3. As controls for this experiment HeLa cells were also infected with either wild type WR, containing the E3L gene, or with the deletion mutant WRDE3L. At 8 and 24 h.p.i., cells were either subjected to metabolic labeling with methionine to analyze the protein synthesis rate, or collected for WB analysis. 19286921 IBDV VP3 Inhibits PKR-Mediated Apoptosis synthesis profile obtained from cells infected with VT7/VP2 and coinfected with VT7, VT7/VP3, or VT7/VP3-P1. Cultures were maintained in the presence of IPTG. At 24 h.p.i. cells were metabolically labeled with methionine. Cell extracts were subjected to SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. The position of molecular mass markers is indicated. Arrows indicate the position of bands corresponding to the VP2 polypeptide and VP3. C. PKR and

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