Transcription of U94 was dependent on intact viruses since co-infections with UV-inactivated HHV6A and 6B did not result in any major change in U94 transcription

interpretation of any O2 effects on the processes of interest. Moreover, keeping the 14N-pool of the product of a certain reaction well above the expected concentrations produced from the added 15N-substrate could minimize any further conversion of the newly formed 15Nproducts by co-occurring processes. The rate measurements for the various processes were carried out as described above. To exclude formation of 29N2 due to coupled nitrification-denitrification in incubations amended with 15NH4+ we added allylthiourea to an additional sample of the highest O2 14757152 treatment at St. 206 and 252. ATU is a specific inhibitor of aerobic NH3 oxidation and does not affect anammox activity shown at least in sediments. Two sets of incubations were performed in parallel at St. 206 and 252 and one sample per time-point was sacrificed to measure dissolved O2. For the remaining stations, O2 concentrations were determined only for the initial time-point in each 15N-incubation experiment. We used a custom-built, fast-responding O2 micro-sensor for most measurements, except at St. 206 where a STOX sensor was used for selected samples. O2 Sensitivity of N-Cycling in OMZs Data analysis We applied least-squares fitting to each set of samples of the O2 sensitivity experiments using Excel’s solver function. Results Hydrochemistry in the Namibian OMZ The water column was poorly stratified over the Namibian shelf at St. 206 and 252 during the time of sampling, as indicated by a weak density gradient, along with the vertical profiles of dissolved O2 and inorganic N-species. At both stations O2 declined gradually with depth, from,200 mmol L21 in the surface MedChemExpress GSK-429286A waters to less than 10 mmol L21 at,80 m. STOX measurements at the incubation depths revealed O2 concentrations as low as 0.6060.11 mmol L21 at St. 206. In the central OMZ at St. 252, the sensor was at its detection limit. Ammonium concentrations were typically in the range of 13 mmol L21 in the oxic zone and decreased to 0.10.5 mmol L21 at the base of the oxycline. Towards the sediment-water interface NH4+ concentrations increased up to 4.5 and 2.5 mmol L21. Nitrite concentrations were fairly constant in the upper,100 m and increased to,2 and,4 mmol L21 in the bottom waters at St. 206 and 252, respectively. The increase in both NO22 and NH4+ in the lower OMZ was accompanied by a sharp decrease in NO32 concentrations, with minimum concentrations of,12 mmol L21 in the lowest sampling depths at both stations. Hydrochemistry in the Peruvian OMZ The stations sampled in the Peruvian OMZ were located on the shelf, shelf edge and in the open ocean. Similar to the Namibian shelf stations, the shallowest site was characterized by low density gradients and a gradual decline in O2 between,20 and 50 m. In contrast, the water column was highly stratified further offshore. Strong pycnoclines, centered around 65, 30 and 55 m at St. 44, 54 and 36, respectively, and a steep oxycline indicated oxygenated surface waters and OMZ were well separated. Oxygen decreased from,250 mmol L21 in the surface to less than 10 mmol L21 at 66, 35 and 75 m. A local O2 maximum was found between 90 9184477 and 100 m at St. 36, likely due to some lateral advection of more oxygenated water. At all four stations, STOX measurements at the incubation depths revealed traces of O2 in the central OMZ at best; mostly here O2 concentrations remained below the detection limit of the STOX sensor. Ammonium concentrations were low and typically 0.05 to 0.1 mmol L21 through

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