Stromal cells from lymphoid organs or from the bone marrow are important to sustain survival and proliferation of human leukemic cells

of carbon sources within environments. We did not find evidence that coordinated gain and loss of carbon source traits is the result of shared pathways or enzymes. In contrast, we found that a strain’s set of carbon utilization traits often predicts the substrate from which the strain was originally isolated. This result suggests that a strain’s environment determines its ability to use individual carbon sources. One important caveat, however, is that just because a strain was isolated from a particular habitat does not mean that it typically grows on that source. Further, isolation of strains from similar 25833960 sources may sometimes be confounded with shared phylogenetic history. In our data, strains isolated from similar substrates typically came from multiple species, therefore phylogenetic history is likely not a major confounder. This indicates that repeated parallel evolution of similar carbon utilization sets is due to common environmental pressures across multiple strains and species of budding yeast. However, denser environmental sampling and phylogenetic analysis are required to better define the ecology of individual strains and genotypes. Variation in the number and types of carbon sources available and used by a strain has the potential to affect both gene content and metabolic networks. This is because there are many genes that are likely to be affected by variation in carbon utilization phenotypes. For example, carbon sources are imported by diverse transport proteins. It has been demonstrated that there is an enrichment of duplicate genes in S. cerevisiae metabolism, supporting the idea that gene copy number changes play an important role in the evolution of diverse metabolism. Ames et al. random across diverse Saccharomyces strains and species. To test this prediction, we used a multiscale bootstrap analysis to assess whether these carbon utilization traits are distributed nonrandomly among strains. Most carbon sources were gained and lost independently of each other. However, we found 4 clusters, involving 2 to 5 carbon sources each, for which gains and losses of carbon sources are significantly associated with each other. We tested whether 10980276 common networks are associated with these non-random gains and losses of carbon utilization traits by Ariflo chemical information examining the distribution of carbon gain and loss on the yeast metabolic network. If multiple carbon sources are used in the same pathway, those traits can be gained or lost together through the addition or removal of any node in that pathway. Alternatively, carbon utilization traits may be related only by overlap of just a single enzyme in the pathway. In either of these cases, carbon sources that require the same enzymes will cluster together in carbon utilization patterns. Metabolic network data was collected from KEGG for all carbon sources analyzed in the strain data, and clustering of carbon sources by metabolic pathway or shared enzyme was analyzed with hierarchical clustering. In contrast to the common network hypothesis, we find no evidence that the structure of the metabolic network drives Carbon Trait Variation and the Metabolic Network analyzed variation in gene copy number among 39 strains of S. cerevisiae and 28 strains of S. paradoxus and found an enrichment of duplicates for genes with catalytic activity and sugar transport. Furthermore, they demonstrated that certain sets of over- and underrepresented duplicates correlate with adaptation to different environments. Our re

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