we cannot exclude that physiological relevant low concentrations of CAI-1 are present at earlier growth phases

pression Profiling Analysis The Ensembl transcript ID was used as the primary identifier for all our analyses. When multiple splice variants existed, all of them were selected. In generating the RPKM distributions of intergenic regions, we considered regions with a distance of at least 10 kb from any RefSeq or Ensembl gene. The annotation information corresponding to each Ensembl transcript ID was retrieved from the Ensembl database via BioMart. To convert the Ensembl Transcript ID to Gene ID, we selected Ensembl gene 660 for the database and Rattus norvegicus genesfor the dataset. Together, information on 39,550 unique transcripts was retrieved, and 22,920 of them were assigned to function-defined protein-coding genes, whereas the remaining transcripts corresponded to predicted genes or different types of RNAs. For each brain region of interest, all the transcripts were pulled from the file generated by Cufflinks. The measurements with RPKM values close to zero were discarded. The RPKM values were logarithmically transformed to base 2, and the measurements of each transcript within an experimental group were subjected to outlier detection. Transcripts with fewer than six valid measurements in Salidroside manufacturer either comparison group after the removal of outliers were discarded. According to the number of transcripts mapped to a gene, the following three cases RNA Extraction and Sample Preparation Total RNA was extracted from each tissue sample 22431203 using TRIzol according to the protocol provided by the manufacturer. The RNA concentration of each sample was quantified using the Qubit RNA BR Assay Kit and the quality was assessed using the Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100. RNA Sequencing Library Preparation and Deep Sequencing The sequencing library of each RNA sample was prepared with the TruSeq RNA Sample Preparation kit based on the protocol provided by the manufacturer. Briefly, poly-containing mRNA was purified from 1 mg of RNA with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. After chemical fragmentation, mRNA fragments were reverse-transcribed and converted into double-stranded cDNA. Following end repair and A-tailing, paired-end sequencing adaptors complementary to sequencing Transcriptome Analysis in HIV-1Tg & F344 Rats were considered: 1) where a single transcript was mapped to a gene, we used the corresponding intensities in all further analysis; 2) where there were multiple records for a single transcript in the dataset, the intensity values were averaged and treated as one record; and 3) where multiple transcripts mapped to the same gene, they were treated as independent genes in the data analysis steps. A Student’s t-test was used to identify differentially expressed genes in each brain region in the two animal strains. On the basis of the p values, the 17850214 false discovery rate was calculated by the method of Benjamini and Hochberg. All analyses were conducted with MATLAB. Reported significance was defined as p,0.005 with a fold change .20%. Genes with 0.005,p,0.05 were considered as having marginal significance, as documented in a comparative Ct method. Hmbs was identified by Normfinder program as the most stably expressed housekeeping gene between the two strains. The relative gene expression was compared between F344 and HIV-1Tg rats using the Student’s t test with the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Results Overview and Summary of Sequencing Data from RNAseq Analysis Total raw data among samples ranged from 45 to 65 million reads, with an average

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