we exploited splice-switching oligonucleotides to experimentally manipulate endogenous TAF6 alternative splicing

s, it appeared that activation of the D2 receptor induced mitochondria that had previously been moving directionally to stop moving entirely. As shown in Fig. 4C, bromocriptine showed a dramatic dampening effect on mitochondrial motility within 15 minutes following treatment. To further investigate the role of the D2 receptor in regulating mitochondrial movement, we examined the effects of a D2R antagonist on cultured hippocampal neurons. In contrast to the effect of bromocriptine, administration of the D2R antagonist, haloperidol, in the absence of added dopamine significantly stimulated mitochondrial movement; the majority of this movement was anterograde . Although an analysis of images from six paired time-lapse imaging experiments did not show much increase in the size of the directionally moving population, starting at 30 minutes, there was a marked increase in the average speed of all directionally moving mitochondria that reached 1.8fold of the control population after 2 hours. A, B. Mean speeds of individual mitochondria before and after treatment with dopamine. Pie chart insets show the percentage of stationary, oscillatory, and directionally moving mitochondria in all pooled experiments in the initial and final 15 minutes of imaging. C. Changes in mean speeds of all directionally moving mitochondria over time following treatment with dopamine. ����indicates retrograde movement; ����indicates anterograde movement. The red dotted lines projecting from the highlighted region of the schematic axon to the Y-axis of each graph in A and B indicate the approximate location and extent of the axon segment that was imaged. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002804.g003 p,0.02). This result suggests that haloperidol blocked 22803826 the effects of any endogenous dopamine in the cultures. In earlier studies, dopamine uptake by cultured rat astrocytes was demonstrated, suggesting that astrocytes might be a possible source of endogenous dopamine in our culture system, in which we use gliaconditioned media. A D1R agonist promotes mitochondrial transport, whereas a D1R antagonist inhibits mitochondrial movement D1 receptors are the second major class of dopamine receptors found in hippocampal neurons. Since signals from D2R and D1R may have opposing effects, we decided to investigate the possible effect of a D1R-specifc agonist on mitochondrial movement. Administration of the D1R agonist, SKF38393, markedly stimulated mitochondrial movement, primarily anterogradely, toward the axon terminal. Analysis of six paired time-lapse imaging experiments showed a slight increase in the size of the directionally moving population. There was also a slight increase in the mean speed of directionally moving mitochondria approximately one hour following the treatment. After 2 hours, the average speed of all directionally moving mitochondria had increased by 65% compared to the 2 hours prior to drug treatment. Dopamine and Mitochondria 5 Dopamine and Mitochondria In contrast, an analysis of five paired time-lapse imaging experiments showed that administration of the D1R antagonist, SCH23390, inhibited virtually all directional movement of mitochondria within one hour, and 10884520 dramatically 660868-91-7 web decreased oscillatory movement. Mitochondrial transport is reversibly modulated by sequential activation of D2R and D1R receptors As shown in GSK3b were decreased by 25%. Conversely, treatment with the D2R antagonist, haloperidol, or the D1R agonist, SKF38393, increased levels of both pAkt and pGSK3

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