This suggests that it might be useful to address dexamethasone use in trial protocols featuring agents that utilize the Cox-2 or VEGF promoters.

lcium mediated caspase activation during M. tuberculosis infection. M. tuberculosis has been shown to interact differently with DCs and macrophages. These include opposite effects on MHC class II levels, IL-12 and IFN-c secretion and regulation. In this study, we have identified a common factor in the form of L-type and R-type VGCC that negatively governs protective responses from both DCs and macrophages that could be targeted for therapeutic intervention. It is pertinent to mention here that the role of VGCC in DCs has been a subject of contention. While some report the presence of active VGCC in DCs, others observed that calcium influx is mainly via CRAC channels. Our data indicate that these channels play a direct role in generation of immune responses from DCs and macrophages. The role of L-type VGCC in CD4+ T cells has recently been shown in the context of Leishmania infection wherein despite being non-excitable, these T cells express functional L-type VGCC. VGCC in these T cells play a major role in inducing calcium influx with their association with the scaffold protein AHNAK-1. Therefore, the data on T cells add support to our results, wherein these channels 19839055 directly influence functional outcomes in non-excitable cells. The negative role of L-type and R-type VGCC during M. tuberculosis infection was further established with our in vivo data, wherein blocking VGCC in M. tuberculosis infected mice significantly reduced bacterial loads in infected mice. The in vivo data correlated well with our results in human cohorts, wherein high expression of L-type and R-type VGCC was observed in patients with active TB disease when compared with healthy controls. Following chemotherapy, the levels of these VGCC decreased significantly. Furthermore, blocking VGCC in PBMCs of healthy or TB patient increased the expression levels of granulysin, IFN-c receptor2 that are known to mediate killing of M. tuberculosis and also downregulated the expression of genes such as CCL2 that promotes Th2 responses pointing to possible downstream mechanisms that would together bring about a reduction in M. tuberculosis burden in infected cells. Interestingly, blocking these VGCC inhibited invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum and this indicated that these channels play a role during infections by other pathogens. Collectively, our results suggest that L-type and R-type VGCC play important roles in regulating immune responses during M. tuberculosis infection. Inhibition of these channels results in significant increase in calcium mobilization leading to expression of pro-inflammatory genes and the generation of protective immunity to mycobacteria. Significantly, our results on patient samples further indicate that these channels are expressed at high levels during active disease, indicating a negative role played 16483784 by these VGCC during M. tuberculosis infection. Finally, the reduction of M. tuberculosis infection in mice Lonafarnib site treated with antibodies to L-type and R-type VGCC indicates their potent roles in determining the course of infection during different stages of M. tuberculosis infection and TB disease. Materials and Methods Animals Female BALB/c mice 46 wk of age kept in pathogen free environment and all experiments were conduced following approval from the ICGEB animal ethics committee. Human Studies All experiments were conducted following approval by the human ethics committee of LRS Institute of TB & Respiratory diseases. Following written inform

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