Transfections were carried out using FuGene-6 according to manufacturer’s instructions using 3 ml of reagent per 1 mg of DNA

and preincubation of sheep red blood cells with a 100-fold excess of prDelta122-318 completely prevented the hemolytic activity of prDelta. This supports that the 122-318 Cterminal part of Delta toxin contains the binding domain to target cells and that the N-terminal part is required for the cytotoxic activity. In contrast, Beta toxin showed no labeling of HeLa or Cos cells and induced no morphological Ki-8751 change in these cells, but was cytotoxic for HL60 cells, in agreement with a previous work. This supports again that C. perfringens Delta Toxin irreversibly to target cell membrane and then to induce a progressive leakage of intracellular compounds. However, Delta toxin does not seem to insert into cell membrane as tested by toxin dissociation from membrane by chaotropic ions using a photoreactive probe. First, we checked whether Delta toxin hemolytic activity can be blocked by PEG from various MWs. As shown in Pore forming activity of Delta toxin and Beta toxin in lipid bilayers Beta toxin did not recognize the same cell surface receptor as that of Delta toxin identified as GM2. Then we checked whether prDelta forms oligomers in sensitive cells. HeLa cells were incubated with prDelta at 37uC for several time periods. As shown in Inhibition of Delta toxin hemolytic activity by PEG The precise mechanism of Delta toxin hemolytic activity has not yet been clearly defined. Delta toxin was found to bind rapidly and C. perfringens Delta Toxin histogram of channel conductance showed a broad histogram with maxima centered around 200 pS, 500 pS and 800 pS. The broad distribution of channels may be caused by the formation of channel aggregates of a unit conductance of about 200 pS. Because of their high molecular mass, these channel aggregates could have a much lower membrane activity as compared to Delta toxin. Single-channel experiments with Delta and Beta toxin were also performed with salts containing ions other than K+ and Cl2. These experiments were done to get some insight in the biophysical properties of both toxins. The results summarized in Discussion Here we characterized C. perfringens Delta toxin gene and its translation in amino acid sequence. Delta toxin is one of the major toxins produced by C. perfringens which is lethal for mice and cytotoxic for various red and white blood cells. Delta toxin contains a N-terminal 28 amino acid signal peptide as deduced from the predicted amino acid sequence and Nterminal sequencing of the secreted wild type toxin. This supports that Delta toxin is secreted from the bacteria through a signal peptide by the type II secretion system, as for the other C. perfringens toxins, except enterotoxin which lacks a signal peptide and is synthesized only during the sporulation phase required for binding and oligomerization of S. aureus alpha toxin, are conserved in Delta toxin . Residues Y203, Y266, and W275, required for the full lethal activity, as well as D167 involved in protein conformation of Beta toxin, correspond to Y191 Y253, W261 and D156 of Delta toxin respectively. However, Delta toxin differs from the other poreforming toxins by its selectivity for only red blood cells and leukocytes from certain animal species. Indeed, Delta 15771452 toxin was found to recognize gangliosides, preferentially GM2, as receptor on target cell surface. As wild type toxin, recombinant Delta toxin was found to be cytotoxic for 16730977 sheep red blood cells and HeLa cells which contain GM2 in their membrane. In addition, prDelta interac

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