HBc expression caused by TGF-b1 treatment, and that the assembling of intracellular viral particles could also be restored by rat HNF-4a overexpression

imal CYP3A4 promoter. In parallel, this sequence was replaced by one of identical length but with no apparent transcriptional activity. By using a spacer we wanted to detect CYP3A4 promoter activity changes independent from the content of the 57 bp fragment, but related to any altered spatial interactions among surrounding cisacting elements following its deletion. Conversely, the CYP3A4derived 57 bp region, or alternatively the spacer, was inserted into the corresponding location in the CYP3A5 promoter. The resulting constructs were assessed for activity in MDCK.2 cells in Darapladib biological activity parallel to the corresponding wild-type promoters. The deletion of the 57 bp element increased the activity of the CYP3A4 promoter 4-fold. The replacement of the 57 bp fragment with a spacer had a similar effect. Conversely, the CYP3A5-57ins construct exhibited a,2/3 decrease in the luciferase activity in comparison to the wild-type CYP3A5 promoter, whereas no such effect was observed following the spacer insertion. Evolutionary history of the 57 bp region in primates The above data demonstrated that the 57 bp fragment contained elements repressing the activity of CYP3A promoters in renal cells. In order to identify the responsible mechanism, the 57 bp region was investigated in more detail in silico and in vitro. To illuminate its evolutionary history and to increase the specificity of the predicted regulatory elements, we first searched for homolog sequences from several primate species. Homolog sequences were found in both galago CYP3A genes, in both tarsier CYP3A genes, provisionally designated by us as gene A and B, in the CYP3A21 of the marmoset, as well as in all CYP3A4, CYP3A7, and CYP3A43 genes from rhesus, chimpanzee, and human. Furthermore, sequences ortholog to the 57 bp fragment were identified in many non-primate mammalian CYP3A genes. In contrast, we found the 57 bp fragment fully deleted from the promoters of all primate CYP3A5 genes. In addition, a partial deletion of the most distal 25 bp within the 57 bp fragment was found in the tarsier gene B. To verify if the repressive effect of the 57 bp region is conserved in primates, ortholog sequences derived from the galago genes CYP3A91 and CYP3A92 were inserted into the human CYP3A5 proximal promoter. Sequence from either gene repressed the luciferase activity in renal cells. The 57 bp region contains a conserved YY1-binding site Besides a portion of the NF1-binding element and an E-box motif, the 57 bp fragment contains on the anti-parallel strand a binding site 3 Tissue-Specific Expression of CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 for a dual-function transcriptional regulator yin yang 1 . YY1 binding to this element in the human CYP3A4 promoter had been reported previously, but its functional significance was unknown. Considering the established role of YY1 as a transcriptional repressor, we concentrated on the binding site for this protein. YY1 is known to bind to a highly degenerated consensus sequence 59-CATN-39 with uppercase and lowercase letters representing the preferred and tolerated nucleotides, respectively. PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22183349 The bolded tri-nucleotide CAT constitutes the YY1 binding core motif. The highest concordance with the consensus sequence was found in galago CYP3A91 and in marmoset CYP3A21, which was reflected by the highest P-Match score values. In contrast, all human, chimpanzee, and rhesus CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 promoters, as well as the promoter of the chimpanzeespecific CYP3A67 gene and of the tarsier A gene contain the mi

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