Moreover HNF-4a is reported to differentially regulate transcription of pgRNA and pre-C mRNA

from U937 cells previously treated with a near IC50 concentration of MAL-A according to manufacturer’s instructions and analyzed by gel electrophoresis and visualized on a G-BOX gel doc apparatus. Measurement of nuclear chromatin condensation Apoptotic cells were also characterized by nuclear condensation of chromatin and/or nuclear fragmentation. Briefly, U937 cells incubated with a near IC50 concentration of MAL-A, were washed with ice cold PBS, stained with DAPI and mounted on poly L-lysine coated slides for analysis on a laser scanning confocal microscope; at least 20 randomly selected microscopic fields were observed per sample. MAL-A caused a redox imbalance in U937 cells Leukemic cells have been reported to have an inherently higher level of ROS in comparison with normal lymphocytes and could be expected to have greater sensitivity to oxidative assault. Accordingly, we measured the levels of ROS in three leukemic cell lines in the absence and presence of MAL-A. The basal ROS generated in all three cell lines U937, MOLT3 and K562 in terms of GMFC was 60.0160.91, 54.1462.48 and 41.9065.04 respectively, whereas in PBMC, the GMFC was lower being 34.6065.05. U937 cells when incubated with a near IC50 concentration of MAL-A showed a time dependent increase in generation of ROS, maximum being at 1 h. A concentration dependent response was also observed, as MAL-A at the highest concentration of 15 mg/ml caused a 24.92 fold increase in fluorescenceas compared to baseline, GMFC being 1496.006169.10. In MOLT3 and K562 cell lines, MAL-A the generation of ROS induced was 5.86 and 9.65 fold higher respectively than their basal levels. However, in PBMC, the basal levels of ROS increased marginally from baseline, GMFC being 57.5369.10. There was no change in cell viorder Dipraglurant ability as measured by PI exclusion. The auto-fluorescence generated by MAL-A was minimal, indicating that the observed increase in fluorescence was attributable to its ability to generate ROS. As nitric oxide is an important signaling and effector molecule that along with ROS can be cytotoxic, we examined the effect of MAL-A on levels of PubMed ID: NO using DAF-2DA. U937 cells, when incubated with a near IC50 concentration of MAL-A showed a 1.7 fold increase in generation of NO from basal level, maximum being at 30 minutes, GMFC being 319.3064.30 vs.186.1061.90. Cell cycle analysis U937 cells treated with MAL-A were fixed in chilled ethanol and kept at 4uC until analysis. Prior to analysis, cells were washed in PBS containing 2% FBS and the resultant pellet resuspended in DNasefree RNase for 2 h at 37uC; cells were then stained with PI and acquired on a flow cytometer. The data were analysed using Cell Quest Pro software and expressed as % of cells in each phase of cell cycle. Flow cytometry U937 cells from different experimental groups were monitored for their intracellular fluorescence on a flow cytometer equipped with an argon-ion laser tuned to 488 nm. The fluorescence of DCF, glutathione sulphomethyl fluorescein and DAF-2T were collected in the FL1 channel, equipped with a 530/30 nm band pass filter while PI was measured in the FL2 channel having a 585/42 nm band pass filter and NAO in the FL3 channel having a 682/33 nm band pass filter. Fluorescence was acquired in the log mode and expressed as geometrical mean fluorescence channel or the average or central tendency of fluorescence of analyzed particles. Acquisition was performed on 10,000 gated events. The data were analyzed MAL-A Causes

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