Complementation of the P. aeruginosa Dpcs strains To generate the att::pcs complementation construct

s was the primary objective of this study. CyT49 could be differentiated with high reproducibility using an optimized process, achieving robust function in vivo. In concordance with our previous reports, we generated pancreatic grafts that could sense blood glucose and respond by releasing human insulin,. The grafts differentiated and matured over time, as shown by the statistically significant increase in baseline and amplitude of response observed after week 10, and significant 5 to 10 min GSIS response at weeks 1650. Critically, grafts could maintain blood glucose homeostasis in an endogenous b-cell ablation model. The combination of scaled differentiation and functional outcome in hundreds of animals represents an experimental magnitude far greater than previously reported, with reproducibility that enables progression to formal preclinical development. We envision developing an allo-compatible neo-pancreatic product, by engrafting pancreatic progenitors within a vascularizing and durable immunoisolation, or macroencapsulation, device. Suspension-based pancreatic differentiation runs consistently yielded only minimal amounts of non-pancreatic tissue upon implantation, in contrast with the variability in teratoma rates Production of Functional Pancreatic Progenitors displayed in our previous reports,. Nonetheless, some grafts also contained dilated ducts and/or cysts derived from these ducts. While not a particular safety concern pathologically, an enlarged cyst could potentially impinge upon surrounding tissue. Cell implantation within a durable macroencapsulation device could potentially constrain such structures, and offer an additional level of safety by enabling retrievability of implanted cells. In any format, formal demonstration of product safety requires both regulated preclinical studies, and eventual batch release qualification of cryopreserved BMS 790052 site material produced under cGMP. In summary, we have assembled and demonstrated the utility of a system for the manufacturing of a functional hESC-based therapeutic product for type 1 diabetes. Our approach coordinates many discrete steps into a highly regulated process, linking a scaled and standardized cell source with expansion and scalable differentiation, through to qualification in PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22187495 vivo. The process generates implantable material with reproducibility and the compatibility required for industrialization. Cryopreservation and Banking of hESC Small and large-scale single-cell banks were cryopreserved using the same approach, essentially as described previously. Adherent cell cultures were harvested according to the above passaging protocol, pooled and counted. Cell pellets were resuspended in prewarmed 50% hESC culture medium /50% human serum. An equal volume of 80% hESC culture medium /20% DMSO was added drop-wise, with swirling. 1 mL of cells was distributed to 1.8 mL Nunc cryovials for freezing at 280uC in Nalgene Mr Frosty containers for 24 hrs, before transferring to liquid N2. cGMP culture and banking were performed by Viacyte employees at a certified 3rd party contract research organization. Aggregate Formation and Differentiation Scaled pancreatic differentiation runs in suspension typically utilized 1820 6-well trays and were carried out by first generating hESC aggregates. On the fourth day after passage adherent hESC cultures were fed with fresh XF HA media and cultured 48 hrs before dissociation. Cultures were harvested according to the passaging protocol and resuspended

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