Ence of Treg cells in spleen and the Foxp3 gene expression

Ence of Treg cells in spleen and the Foxp3 gene expression in the spinal cords of EAE mice fourteen days after induction of the disease. Corroborating our results, the expression of Foxp3 was found significantly augmented in CQ treated-mice (BIBS39 price Figure 3F). In the periphery of the immune system, it was observed that EAE mice that received CQ had increased Treg cell numbers compared with the PBS treated-group (Figure 3G). These data indicate that the reduction in EAE severity observed in CQ-treated mice correlates with the increase in Treg cells number both in the CNS and the periphery.Administration of Chloroquine Suppresses the Agspecific Proliferation and Changes the Cytokine Production PatternConsidering that an increase in Treg and IL-10-producing cells may correlate with the reduced clinical signs of EAE, and that theantigen-specific cellular immune response is the cause of the disease in mice, we next evaluated whether peripheral encephalitogenic lymphocytes from CQ treated-mice proliferate in the presence of MOG35?5. For that purpose, splenic leukocytes derived from mice after ten days of immunization with neuroantigen were collected and put in culture in the presence of MOG35?5 for 96 h. Our data show that lymphocytes from CQtreated mice proliferated significantly less than cells from PBS?treated group (Figure 4A). In the culture supernatants there was also a significant reduction in IL-17 levels, whereas the concentration of IL-10, IL-6, IFN-c, and IL-4 were 18204824 found significantly up regulated from CQ-treated mice cells compared to PBS-treated ones. No difference could be observed in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) between cultures of both groups (Figure 5B).Chloroquine Supresses EAEFigure 3. Analysis of the cellular infiltration of the CNS show reduced IFN-c and IL-17 producing cells in CQ treated EAE mice. (A) CQ treated-mice presented reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. (B) The percentage of IFN-c- and IL-17-producing cells infiltrating the brain was reduced while the frequency of IL-10- producing cells was found augmented in brain of mice treated with CQ. (C, D and E) Gene expression of IFN-c, IL-17 and IL-10 in the CNS followed the same pattern, respectively. (F) The expression of FOXP3 was evaluated in the CNS by RT-PCR. (G) The frequency of CD25+Foxp3+ cells was evaluated in spleens of mice. Results are Dimethylenastron site representative of two independent experiments and are expressed as mean 6 SEM for at least five animals. p,0,05 (*) and p,0.01 (**). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065913.gChloroquine Treatment may also be Used after the Onset of EAE with Similar ResultsAlthough CQ prophylactic approach was able to reduce the clinical evolution of EAE, the results might differ when the drug is administrated after disease onset, which corresponds to a more realistic picture for disease treatment. In order to solve this issue, mice were immunized with MOG35?5 and 10 days later, after the onset of EAE, CQ treatment was initiated (Figure 5A). Results showed that CQ-treated EAE mice presented a reduction in the weight loss and amelioration of the clinical course of the disease (Figure 5B and 5C, respectively). EAE develops after the migration of inflammatory cells to the CNS, where they produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and secrete a myriad of enzymes and soluble factors damaging the nervoussystem. As the treatment started after disease onset, we next evaluated whether the cellular infiltration in the spinal cords of mice was al.Ence of Treg cells in spleen and the Foxp3 gene expression in the spinal cords of EAE mice fourteen days after induction of the disease. Corroborating our results, the expression of Foxp3 was found significantly augmented in CQ treated-mice (Figure 3F). In the periphery of the immune system, it was observed that EAE mice that received CQ had increased Treg cell numbers compared with the PBS treated-group (Figure 3G). These data indicate that the reduction in EAE severity observed in CQ-treated mice correlates with the increase in Treg cells number both in the CNS and the periphery.Administration of Chloroquine Suppresses the Agspecific Proliferation and Changes the Cytokine Production PatternConsidering that an increase in Treg and IL-10-producing cells may correlate with the reduced clinical signs of EAE, and that theantigen-specific cellular immune response is the cause of the disease in mice, we next evaluated whether peripheral encephalitogenic lymphocytes from CQ treated-mice proliferate in the presence of MOG35?5. For that purpose, splenic leukocytes derived from mice after ten days of immunization with neuroantigen were collected and put in culture in the presence of MOG35?5 for 96 h. Our data show that lymphocytes from CQtreated mice proliferated significantly less than cells from PBS?treated group (Figure 4A). In the culture supernatants there was also a significant reduction in IL-17 levels, whereas the concentration of IL-10, IL-6, IFN-c, and IL-4 were 18204824 found significantly up regulated from CQ-treated mice cells compared to PBS-treated ones. No difference could be observed in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) between cultures of both groups (Figure 5B).Chloroquine Supresses EAEFigure 3. Analysis of the cellular infiltration of the CNS show reduced IFN-c and IL-17 producing cells in CQ treated EAE mice. (A) CQ treated-mice presented reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. (B) The percentage of IFN-c- and IL-17-producing cells infiltrating the brain was reduced while the frequency of IL-10- producing cells was found augmented in brain of mice treated with CQ. (C, D and E) Gene expression of IFN-c, IL-17 and IL-10 in the CNS followed the same pattern, respectively. (F) The expression of FOXP3 was evaluated in the CNS by RT-PCR. (G) The frequency of CD25+Foxp3+ cells was evaluated in spleens of mice. Results are representative of two independent experiments and are expressed as mean 6 SEM for at least five animals. p,0,05 (*) and p,0.01 (**). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065913.gChloroquine Treatment may also be Used after the Onset of EAE with Similar ResultsAlthough CQ prophylactic approach was able to reduce the clinical evolution of EAE, the results might differ when the drug is administrated after disease onset, which corresponds to a more realistic picture for disease treatment. In order to solve this issue, mice were immunized with MOG35?5 and 10 days later, after the onset of EAE, CQ treatment was initiated (Figure 5A). Results showed that CQ-treated EAE mice presented a reduction in the weight loss and amelioration of the clinical course of the disease (Figure 5B and 5C, respectively). EAE develops after the migration of inflammatory cells to the CNS, where they produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and secrete a myriad of enzymes and soluble factors damaging the nervoussystem. As the treatment started after disease onset, we next evaluated whether the cellular infiltration in the spinal cords of mice was al.

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