Herapeutic treatment option for these diseases. Here we focus on the

Herapeutic treatment option for these diseases. Here we focus on the pathogenesis of cancer in relation to the loss of gap junction protein expression. A class of substituted quinolines was described in Shi et al. and the effects of the first generation compound (PQ1) as a gap junction enhancer in breast cancer cell lines has been explored [2] [3]. The second generation compound, 6-methoxy-8-[(2furanylmethyl) amino]-4-methyl-5-(3trifluoromethylphenyloxy) quinoline (PQ7), was shownThe effect of PQ7 on mammary carcinomato enhancer GJIC activity in cancer cells, with a more powerful effect on GJIC than the first generation PQ1 [4]. Many cancer treatment methods utilize chemotherapies that target mitotic cells for destruction, but this is not specific to the cancer cells and leads to severe side effects. The loss of GJIC by cancer cells is specific, suggesting that restoration of GJIC may provide a treatment with less detrimental effects to the host. Previous studies indicate that administration of PQ1 via oral gavage has a low toxicity to normal tissue of healthy C57BL/6J mice with no observable adverse effects [5], while significantly attenuating xenograft tumor growth of nude mice [6]. Here the distribution and anti-tumor effects of PQ7 are explored. This study first determined the systemic distribution of PQ7 after intraperitoneal injection in healthy C57BL/6J mice. The drug distribution to the vital organs was determined at various periods of time after injection. Analysis using histological Felypressin price observation of PQ7 treated tissue showed no significant alterations in tissue organization or structure, suggesting a low toxicity. Next PQ7 was utilized as a treatment for mammary carcinoma in a spontaneous mammary tumor mouse model. The in situ generation of mammary tumors in the transgenic strain FVB/NTg(MMTV-PyVT) 634Mul/J (also known as PyVT) was used to determine the biological and histological effects of PQ7 on spontaneous tumorigenesis and metastasis. The PyVT model carries the Polyoma Virus middle T antigen with mammary tissue-specific expression driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter [7]. Virgin females that carry the transgene develop poorly differentiated, multi-focal, invasive ductal carcinoma by 10?2 weeks of age, with a high incidence of lung metastases 194423-15-9 chemical information stemming from the primary mammary tumor [8]. Noninvasive focal lesions develop by 5 weeks and are classified into four groups: simple, solid, cystic, and mixed (solid and cystic) [9]. Development of tumors was divided into three time periods: Pre-tumor stage (up to 4 weeks old), Early tumor stage (6 to 8 weeks old) and Late tumor stage (more than 10 weeks old). For each stage, effect from PQ7 administration was evaluated and the expression of gap junction proteins was measured on treated tissue.regularly monitored by the veterinary staff. Animal care and use protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at Kansas State University (Protocol Number: 2950), Manhattan following NIH guidelines.CompoundsPQ7,6-methoxy-8-[(2-furanylmethyl)amino]-4methyl-5-(3-trifluoromethylphenyloxy) quinoline, was prepared as previously reported [2].AnimalsFemale C57BL/6J (The Jackson Laboratories, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609 USA) mice approximately 5 weeks of age were used in the distribution experiments. All mice were housed together in a temperature controlled environment (72 F) with a 12 hour light-dark cycle and unlimited access to standard mouse chow an.Herapeutic treatment option for these diseases. Here we focus on the pathogenesis of cancer in relation to the loss of gap junction protein expression. A class of substituted quinolines was described in Shi et al. and the effects of the first generation compound (PQ1) as a gap junction enhancer in breast cancer cell lines has been explored [2] [3]. The second generation compound, 6-methoxy-8-[(2furanylmethyl) amino]-4-methyl-5-(3trifluoromethylphenyloxy) quinoline (PQ7), was shownThe effect of PQ7 on mammary carcinomato enhancer GJIC activity in cancer cells, with a more powerful effect on GJIC than the first generation PQ1 [4]. Many cancer treatment methods utilize chemotherapies that target mitotic cells for destruction, but this is not specific to the cancer cells and leads to severe side effects. The loss of GJIC by cancer cells is specific, suggesting that restoration of GJIC may provide a treatment with less detrimental effects to the host. Previous studies indicate that administration of PQ1 via oral gavage has a low toxicity to normal tissue of healthy C57BL/6J mice with no observable adverse effects [5], while significantly attenuating xenograft tumor growth of nude mice [6]. Here the distribution and anti-tumor effects of PQ7 are explored. This study first determined the systemic distribution of PQ7 after intraperitoneal injection in healthy C57BL/6J mice. The drug distribution to the vital organs was determined at various periods of time after injection. Analysis using histological observation of PQ7 treated tissue showed no significant alterations in tissue organization or structure, suggesting a low toxicity. Next PQ7 was utilized as a treatment for mammary carcinoma in a spontaneous mammary tumor mouse model. The in situ generation of mammary tumors in the transgenic strain FVB/NTg(MMTV-PyVT) 634Mul/J (also known as PyVT) was used to determine the biological and histological effects of PQ7 on spontaneous tumorigenesis and metastasis. The PyVT model carries the Polyoma Virus middle T antigen with mammary tissue-specific expression driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter [7]. Virgin females that carry the transgene develop poorly differentiated, multi-focal, invasive ductal carcinoma by 10?2 weeks of age, with a high incidence of lung metastases stemming from the primary mammary tumor [8]. Noninvasive focal lesions develop by 5 weeks and are classified into four groups: simple, solid, cystic, and mixed (solid and cystic) [9]. Development of tumors was divided into three time periods: Pre-tumor stage (up to 4 weeks old), Early tumor stage (6 to 8 weeks old) and Late tumor stage (more than 10 weeks old). For each stage, effect from PQ7 administration was evaluated and the expression of gap junction proteins was measured on treated tissue.regularly monitored by the veterinary staff. Animal care and use protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at Kansas State University (Protocol Number: 2950), Manhattan following NIH guidelines.CompoundsPQ7,6-methoxy-8-[(2-furanylmethyl)amino]-4methyl-5-(3-trifluoromethylphenyloxy) quinoline, was prepared as previously reported [2].AnimalsFemale C57BL/6J (The Jackson Laboratories, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609 USA) mice approximately 5 weeks of age were used in the distribution experiments. All mice were housed together in a temperature controlled environment (72 F) with a 12 hour light-dark cycle and unlimited access to standard mouse chow an.

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