Locus in the Laval dataset and replication in UBC and Groningen

Locus in the Laval dataset and replication in UBC and Groningen datasets.Table SRefining COPD Susceptibility Loci with Lung eQTLs(DOCX)Table S3 Significant eQTLs at the 19q13 locus in the Laval dataset and replication in UBC and Groningen datasets. (DOCX)assistance. We also acknowledge the staff of Calcul Quebec for IT support ?with the high performance computer clusters.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: M. Lamontagne YB. Performed the experiments: DN. Analyzed the data: M. Lamontagne. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: M. Laviolette CC 10457188 PP DS JH DP WT. Wrote the paper: M. Lamontagne YB.AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank Christine Racine and Sabrina Biardel at the Respiratory Health Network Tissue Bank of the FRQ for their valuable
MedChemExpress BTZ043 Parkinson’s disease (PD) clearly manifests a heterogeneous clinical syndrome and this variability in the clinical phenotype seems to suggest the existence of several subtypes of the disease [1]. Assuming that homogeneous groups of patients are more likely to share pathological and genetic features, recognition of different subgroups of patients may be relevant for research on underlying pathophysiology, with crucial consequences for our understanding of disease progression, prognosis and treatment strategies. Subtypes of PD have previously been profiled mainly according to the relevance of such demographic and clinical features as age at disease onset and motor phenotype [2?]. Recently, two independent groups reviewed the results of the ��-Sitosterol ��-D-glucoside cluster analyses performed on PD patients, showing that the cluster profiles “old age-at-onset with rapid disease progression” and “young age-atonset with slow disease progression” emerged from the majority of studies [6,7]. Two of the examined studies further identified the“tremor-dominant” and the “bradykinesia/rigidity and PIGD dominant” subgroups [8,9], while other profiles were less consistently revealed. Presence of different subgroups of PD patients has been less investigated from a non-motor viewpoint [1,6?]. Cognitive dysfunctions, particularly deficits in tasks such as set-shifting, sequencing, and planning (executive functions), have been found to be associated with some motor features including bradykinesia, axial involvement and gait disturbances [10?5]. Depression has been consistently reported as one the most frequent psychiatric features in PD and it has been supposed to represent a distinct subtype of disease [16]. Apart from cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, there are only few observations suggesting that non motor symptoms (NMS) may group with either demographic or clinical features in PD [17?0]. Moreover, previous research included patients treated with dopaminergic therapy. Dopaminergic therapy has been reportedThe Heterogeneity of Early Parkinson’s Diseaseto affect the NMS, including cognition and mood [21?3] and this might be a potential confounding factor. To test the existence of subgroups that may be profiled according to the presence of NMS, we performed a cluster analysis using both motor and non-motor data of a large cohort of newly diagnosed untreated PD patients.calculated as previously described [31]. Using such follow-up data we performed further post-hoc analyses, as detailed in the Statistical analyses section.NMS Data CollectionThe Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to explore global cognition, while the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) to focus on frontal dysfunctions.Locus in the Laval dataset and replication in UBC and Groningen datasets.Table SRefining COPD Susceptibility Loci with Lung eQTLs(DOCX)Table S3 Significant eQTLs at the 19q13 locus in the Laval dataset and replication in UBC and Groningen datasets. (DOCX)assistance. We also acknowledge the staff of Calcul Quebec for IT support ?with the high performance computer clusters.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: M. Lamontagne YB. Performed the experiments: DN. Analyzed the data: M. Lamontagne. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: M. Laviolette CC 10457188 PP DS JH DP WT. Wrote the paper: M. Lamontagne YB.AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank Christine Racine and Sabrina Biardel at the Respiratory Health Network Tissue Bank of the FRQ for their valuable
Parkinson’s disease (PD) clearly manifests a heterogeneous clinical syndrome and this variability in the clinical phenotype seems to suggest the existence of several subtypes of the disease [1]. Assuming that homogeneous groups of patients are more likely to share pathological and genetic features, recognition of different subgroups of patients may be relevant for research on underlying pathophysiology, with crucial consequences for our understanding of disease progression, prognosis and treatment strategies. Subtypes of PD have previously been profiled mainly according to the relevance of such demographic and clinical features as age at disease onset and motor phenotype [2?]. Recently, two independent groups reviewed the results of the cluster analyses performed on PD patients, showing that the cluster profiles “old age-at-onset with rapid disease progression” and “young age-atonset with slow disease progression” emerged from the majority of studies [6,7]. Two of the examined studies further identified the“tremor-dominant” and the “bradykinesia/rigidity and PIGD dominant” subgroups [8,9], while other profiles were less consistently revealed. Presence of different subgroups of PD patients has been less investigated from a non-motor viewpoint [1,6?]. Cognitive dysfunctions, particularly deficits in tasks such as set-shifting, sequencing, and planning (executive functions), have been found to be associated with some motor features including bradykinesia, axial involvement and gait disturbances [10?5]. Depression has been consistently reported as one the most frequent psychiatric features in PD and it has been supposed to represent a distinct subtype of disease [16]. Apart from cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, there are only few observations suggesting that non motor symptoms (NMS) may group with either demographic or clinical features in PD [17?0]. Moreover, previous research included patients treated with dopaminergic therapy. Dopaminergic therapy has been reportedThe Heterogeneity of Early Parkinson’s Diseaseto affect the NMS, including cognition and mood [21?3] and this might be a potential confounding factor. To test the existence of subgroups that may be profiled according to the presence of NMS, we performed a cluster analysis using both motor and non-motor data of a large cohort of newly diagnosed untreated PD patients.calculated as previously described [31]. Using such follow-up data we performed further post-hoc analyses, as detailed in the Statistical analyses section.NMS Data CollectionThe Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to explore global cognition, while the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) to focus on frontal dysfunctions.

Leave a Reply