Ogic mechanism that triggers this phenomenon is not clear, it is

Ogic mechanism that triggers this phenomenon is not clear, it is likely that men have a greater propensity to ventricular arrhythmias than women [17]. It has been suggested that some differences in electrophysiologic properties related to sex hormones may, at least in part, explain the gender-specific propensity to ventricular arrhythmias [21,23]. In addition, some studies advocate that gender differences in autonomic nervous systemeGFR – estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate; iPTH – intact Parathyroid Hormone; FGF23 – Fibroblast Growth Factor 23; CRP – C-Reactive Protein; IL6 – Interleukin6. Results in mean 6 SD, median (interquartiles) or proportions. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066036.tVentricular Arrhythmia in CKD PatientsFigure 1. Cardiovascular parameters according to the presence of ventricular arrhythmia. Left Ventricular Mass Index (A), Calcium Score (B) and Ejection fraction (C) in patients with and without ventricular arrhythmia. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066036.gfunction, evaluated by variability in heart rate, could influence ventricular tachyarrhythmias [24,25]. Actually, decreased heart rate variability frequently observed among men has beenestablished as a significant risk factor for higher mortality in general population as well as in dialysis population [26,27]. Corroborating with the above mentioned rationale, in the current study, a lower heart rate variability was observed more frequently among men when compared to women (14 vs 2 , p = 0.048, respectively). In the present study, increased hemoglobin levels were independently associated with ventricular arrhythmia. Of note, few patients were on ESA therapy. Several previous studies, including CKD patients receiving ESA, on dialysis or not, have demonstrated that higher hemoglobin has no benefit [28,29] or it is even associated with cardiovascular complications and greater risk of mortality [30,31] in these patients. In a retrospective study with a cohort of 34,963 hemodialysis patients, each 1 g/dl increase in the residual standard deviation was associated with a 33 increase in the death rate [32]. Thus, a U-shaped relationship between hemoglobin levels and clinical outcomes has been suggested in this particular group of patients [33,34]. More studies are necessary to explore the mechanistic explanation for these findings. The MedChemExpress Thiazole Orange traditional view of ventricular arrhythmia pathophysiology postulates a vulnerable diseased myocardium with a transient arrhythmic trigger [8,9,17]. Left ventricular hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction are highly prevalent in asymptomatic patients with end-stage renal disease, which sets a high background risk of arrhythmias in this population [7,35]. The association between poor systolic function and ventricular arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death has been demonstrated in studies including both general [36,37] and CKD [38,39] population. Accordingly, a buy Calciferol reduced ejection fraction was independently associated with the presence of ventricular arrhythmia in the present study. Available literature suggests a relationship between left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac arrhythmia in patients on hemodialysis [4,5]. The myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy provide additional substrate for an increased electric instability and may then contribute to an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death in uremic patients [37]. Paoletti et al. indicated that left ventricular hypertrophy, and particularly its progression, was the strongest p.Ogic mechanism that triggers this phenomenon is not clear, it is likely that men have a greater propensity to ventricular arrhythmias than women [17]. It has been suggested that some differences in electrophysiologic properties related to sex hormones may, at least in part, explain the gender-specific propensity to ventricular arrhythmias [21,23]. In addition, some studies advocate that gender differences in autonomic nervous systemeGFR – estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate; iPTH – intact Parathyroid Hormone; FGF23 – Fibroblast Growth Factor 23; CRP – C-Reactive Protein; IL6 – Interleukin6. Results in mean 6 SD, median (interquartiles) or proportions. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066036.tVentricular Arrhythmia in CKD PatientsFigure 1. Cardiovascular parameters according to the presence of ventricular arrhythmia. Left Ventricular Mass Index (A), Calcium Score (B) and Ejection fraction (C) in patients with and without ventricular arrhythmia. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066036.gfunction, evaluated by variability in heart rate, could influence ventricular tachyarrhythmias [24,25]. Actually, decreased heart rate variability frequently observed among men has beenestablished as a significant risk factor for higher mortality in general population as well as in dialysis population [26,27]. Corroborating with the above mentioned rationale, in the current study, a lower heart rate variability was observed more frequently among men when compared to women (14 vs 2 , p = 0.048, respectively). In the present study, increased hemoglobin levels were independently associated with ventricular arrhythmia. Of note, few patients were on ESA therapy. Several previous studies, including CKD patients receiving ESA, on dialysis or not, have demonstrated that higher hemoglobin has no benefit [28,29] or it is even associated with cardiovascular complications and greater risk of mortality [30,31] in these patients. In a retrospective study with a cohort of 34,963 hemodialysis patients, each 1 g/dl increase in the residual standard deviation was associated with a 33 increase in the death rate [32]. Thus, a U-shaped relationship between hemoglobin levels and clinical outcomes has been suggested in this particular group of patients [33,34]. More studies are necessary to explore the mechanistic explanation for these findings. The traditional view of ventricular arrhythmia pathophysiology postulates a vulnerable diseased myocardium with a transient arrhythmic trigger [8,9,17]. Left ventricular hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction are highly prevalent in asymptomatic patients with end-stage renal disease, which sets a high background risk of arrhythmias in this population [7,35]. The association between poor systolic function and ventricular arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death has been demonstrated in studies including both general [36,37] and CKD [38,39] population. Accordingly, a reduced ejection fraction was independently associated with the presence of ventricular arrhythmia in the present study. Available literature suggests a relationship between left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac arrhythmia in patients on hemodialysis [4,5]. The myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy provide additional substrate for an increased electric instability and may then contribute to an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death in uremic patients [37]. Paoletti et al. indicated that left ventricular hypertrophy, and particularly its progression, was the strongest p.

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