Um. Plates were incubated at 0 37 C in 5 CO2 for four different

Um. Plates were incubated at 0 37 C in 5 CO2 for four different times, t 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Each barrier assay, for each time point, was repeated three times. Images of the spreading cell population were obtained by fixing cells with 10 formalin, followed by 0:01 crystal violet (SigmaAldrich, Australia). The stain was rinsed with phosphate-buffered saline (Invitrogen, Australia) and the plates were air-dried. Images were acquired using a stereo microscope with a Nixon digital camera (DXM1200C).0.2 Edge Detection MethodsThree methods were used to detect the location of the leading edge: (i) a manual detection method written using MATLAB’s Image Processing Toolbox (version 7.12) [25], (ii) an automated method using MATLAB’s Image Processing Toolbox (version 7.12) [25] and (iii) an automated method using ImageJ (version 1.46r) [24]. All three methods are based on a Sobel edge detection algorithm [33] but differ in the way that the thresholds are chosen. Although different edge detection methods are available, such as the active contour method [34] and the Canny method [35,36], we choose to focus on MATLAB and ImageJ implementations of the Sobel method since these software tools are widely available.0.2.1 Manual edge detection using the MATLAB image processing toolbox. Customized image processing softwareMaterials and Methods 0.1 Experimental MethodsMurine fibroblast 3T3 cells (ATCC, CCL-92, Manassas, VA, USA) were grown in T175 cm2 tissue culture flasks (Nunc, Thermo Scientific, Denmark) using Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (Invitrogen, Australia) supplemented with 5 fetal calf serum (FCS) (Hyclone, New Zealand), 2mM L-glutamine (Invitrogen) and 1 v/v Autophagy Penicillin/Streptomycin (Invitrogen) in 5 CO2 at 37uC. Prior to confluence, cells were lifted using 0:05 trypsin (Invitrogen, Australia) and viable cells were counted using a Trypan blue exclusion test and a Autophagy haemocytometer. Cell migration experiments were performed using a circular barrier assay. Metal-silicone barriers, 6 mm in diameter (Aix Scientifics, Germany), were cleaned, sterilized, dried and placed in the center of the wells in a 24-well tissue culture plate with 500 mL of culture medium. The wells in tissue culture plate have a diameter of 15.6 mm. Two different densities of cell suspensions were used: 10,000 and 30,000 cells/mL. Ten mg=mL Mitomycin-C (Sigma Aldrich, Australia) was added to the cell solutions for one hour to inhibit cell proliferation [32]. One mL of cell suspension was carefully inserted in the barrier to ensure that the cells were approximately evenly distributed. Once seeded, the tissue culture plate was left for one hour in a humidified incubator at 37uC and 5 CO2 to allow the cells to attach to the surface. After the cells attached to the surface, the barriers were removed and the cell layer was washedwas written using the MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox [25]. The following procedure was used to detect the location of the leading edge of the spreading population. The image was imported (imread) and converted from color to grayscale (rgbtogray). The Sobel method was applied to the grayscale image by specifying a sensitivity threshold value S, in which all edges weaker than S are excluded (edge[grayscale image, `Sobel’, S]). The lines in the resulting image were dilated to show the outlines 1676428 of detected edges (strel(7), imdilate). Remaining empty spaces in the images were filled and all objects disconnected from the leading edge were removed (imfil.Um. Plates were incubated at 0 37 C in 5 CO2 for four different times, t 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Each barrier assay, for each time point, was repeated three times. Images of the spreading cell population were obtained by fixing cells with 10 formalin, followed by 0:01 crystal violet (SigmaAldrich, Australia). The stain was rinsed with phosphate-buffered saline (Invitrogen, Australia) and the plates were air-dried. Images were acquired using a stereo microscope with a Nixon digital camera (DXM1200C).0.2 Edge Detection MethodsThree methods were used to detect the location of the leading edge: (i) a manual detection method written using MATLAB’s Image Processing Toolbox (version 7.12) [25], (ii) an automated method using MATLAB’s Image Processing Toolbox (version 7.12) [25] and (iii) an automated method using ImageJ (version 1.46r) [24]. All three methods are based on a Sobel edge detection algorithm [33] but differ in the way that the thresholds are chosen. Although different edge detection methods are available, such as the active contour method [34] and the Canny method [35,36], we choose to focus on MATLAB and ImageJ implementations of the Sobel method since these software tools are widely available.0.2.1 Manual edge detection using the MATLAB image processing toolbox. Customized image processing softwareMaterials and Methods 0.1 Experimental MethodsMurine fibroblast 3T3 cells (ATCC, CCL-92, Manassas, VA, USA) were grown in T175 cm2 tissue culture flasks (Nunc, Thermo Scientific, Denmark) using Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (Invitrogen, Australia) supplemented with 5 fetal calf serum (FCS) (Hyclone, New Zealand), 2mM L-glutamine (Invitrogen) and 1 v/v Penicillin/Streptomycin (Invitrogen) in 5 CO2 at 37uC. Prior to confluence, cells were lifted using 0:05 trypsin (Invitrogen, Australia) and viable cells were counted using a Trypan blue exclusion test and a haemocytometer. Cell migration experiments were performed using a circular barrier assay. Metal-silicone barriers, 6 mm in diameter (Aix Scientifics, Germany), were cleaned, sterilized, dried and placed in the center of the wells in a 24-well tissue culture plate with 500 mL of culture medium. The wells in tissue culture plate have a diameter of 15.6 mm. Two different densities of cell suspensions were used: 10,000 and 30,000 cells/mL. Ten mg=mL Mitomycin-C (Sigma Aldrich, Australia) was added to the cell solutions for one hour to inhibit cell proliferation [32]. One mL of cell suspension was carefully inserted in the barrier to ensure that the cells were approximately evenly distributed. Once seeded, the tissue culture plate was left for one hour in a humidified incubator at 37uC and 5 CO2 to allow the cells to attach to the surface. After the cells attached to the surface, the barriers were removed and the cell layer was washedwas written using the MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox [25]. The following procedure was used to detect the location of the leading edge of the spreading population. The image was imported (imread) and converted from color to grayscale (rgbtogray). The Sobel method was applied to the grayscale image by specifying a sensitivity threshold value S, in which all edges weaker than S are excluded (edge[grayscale image, `Sobel’, S]). The lines in the resulting image were dilated to show the outlines 1676428 of detected edges (strel(7), imdilate). Remaining empty spaces in the images were filled and all objects disconnected from the leading edge were removed (imfil.

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