Y also occur via diffusion in a process that is dependent

Y also occur via diffusion in a process that is dependent on scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) and is affected by the concentration gradient, phospholipids, and external acceptors, as the SR-BI pathway is bi-directional [11]. AGEs are elevated in 256373-96-3 site apoA-I from people with diabetes, and also in apoA-I modified in vitro by incubation with methylglyoxal [14]. Glycation of apoA-I by methylglyoxal Castanospermine biological activity affects the functional properties of HDL, such as its ability to activate LCAT [15]. ApoA-I may also be glycated in vitro by fructose or artificial sweeteners with this reported to enhance cell senescence and uptake of modified LDL [16,17]. Pretreatment of cells with glycolaldehyde has also been shown to impair cholesterol efflux to apoA-I [18] and HDL [19] via modification of ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. Studies on the effects of HDL glycation/ glycoxidation on cholesterol efflux have yielded mixed data, with both impairment and no effect reported [20?3]. We therefore examined the hypothesis that glycation of apoA-I by reactive aldehydes would modulate phospholipid affinity and efflux of cholesterol from lipid-loaded cells. This has been investigated using homogenous and well-characterised species: lipid-free apoAI and discoidal reconstituted HDL (drHDL, which contains phosphatidylcholine complexed with apoA-I), as well as lipid-free apoA-I 16985061 from people with Type 1 diabetes and normal controls. These studies show that glycation of apoA-I occurs readily with reactive aldehydes, and less rapidly with glucose, and that this results in modification of specific protein side-chains as well as cross-linking. These changes modulate phospholipid binding but not cholesterol efflux from lipid-laden macrophage cells.Table 1. Characterisation of Type 1 diabetes and control populations.Type 1 diabetes Age (years) Sex (M/F) N BMI (kg/m ) HbA1c ( ) Fasting blood glucose (mM) Urinary albumin (mg/min) HDL-C (mM) Total cholesterol (mM) Triglyceride (mM)Control subjects 3468 6/4 10 24.162.2 5.160.4 5.160.5 9.865.6 1.460.3 5.660.8 1.560.3268 6/6 12 24.762.1 7.961.2** 13.464.1** 15.168.3 1.460.3 4.460.6** 0.960.3**p,0.05, **p,0.001 compared to control population. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065430.tLipoprotein preparation, modification and characterisationLDL (1.019,d,1.06 g/ml) were isolated and acetylated as previously [9]. Modification was confirmed by relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) on agarose gels [9]. HDL (1.063,d,1.21 g/ml) for in vitro experiments were isolated from pooled autologously donated human plasma (Gribbles Pathology, South Australia, Australia). Further HDL were isolated from people with Type 1 diabetes and normal controls. ApoA-I was isolated, and discoidal reconstituted HDL (drHDL) containing POPC and apoA-I (initial molar ratio 100:1, final molar ratio 90?99:1 molar ratio, determined from analysis of the particles [24]) were prepared as previously described [24]. Samples were dialysed against PBS before use. Lipid-free apoA-I and drHDL (1 mg apoA-I protein/ml) were glycated with the concentrations of glucose, methylglyoxal or glycolaldehyde (all from Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, USA; catalogue numbers G5767, M0252 and G6805 respectively) stated in the text in PBS at 37uC for 24 h, in sealed tubes flushed with N2 gas. Unreacted reagents were removed by dialysis against PBS.Materials and Methods Ethics statementCollection of blood for LDL isolation, from healthy volunteers, was approved by the Sydney South West Area Health Service (New South Wales, Austral.Y also occur via diffusion in a process that is dependent on scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) and is affected by the concentration gradient, phospholipids, and external acceptors, as the SR-BI pathway is bi-directional [11]. AGEs are elevated in apoA-I from people with diabetes, and also in apoA-I modified in vitro by incubation with methylglyoxal [14]. Glycation of apoA-I by methylglyoxal affects the functional properties of HDL, such as its ability to activate LCAT [15]. ApoA-I may also be glycated in vitro by fructose or artificial sweeteners with this reported to enhance cell senescence and uptake of modified LDL [16,17]. Pretreatment of cells with glycolaldehyde has also been shown to impair cholesterol efflux to apoA-I [18] and HDL [19] via modification of ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. Studies on the effects of HDL glycation/ glycoxidation on cholesterol efflux have yielded mixed data, with both impairment and no effect reported [20?3]. We therefore examined the hypothesis that glycation of apoA-I by reactive aldehydes would modulate phospholipid affinity and efflux of cholesterol from lipid-loaded cells. This has been investigated using homogenous and well-characterised species: lipid-free apoAI and discoidal reconstituted HDL (drHDL, which contains phosphatidylcholine complexed with apoA-I), as well as lipid-free apoA-I 16985061 from people with Type 1 diabetes and normal controls. These studies show that glycation of apoA-I occurs readily with reactive aldehydes, and less rapidly with glucose, and that this results in modification of specific protein side-chains as well as cross-linking. These changes modulate phospholipid binding but not cholesterol efflux from lipid-laden macrophage cells.Table 1. Characterisation of Type 1 diabetes and control populations.Type 1 diabetes Age (years) Sex (M/F) N BMI (kg/m ) HbA1c ( ) Fasting blood glucose (mM) Urinary albumin (mg/min) HDL-C (mM) Total cholesterol (mM) Triglyceride (mM)Control subjects 3468 6/4 10 24.162.2 5.160.4 5.160.5 9.865.6 1.460.3 5.660.8 1.560.3268 6/6 12 24.762.1 7.961.2** 13.464.1** 15.168.3 1.460.3 4.460.6** 0.960.3**p,0.05, **p,0.001 compared to control population. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065430.tLipoprotein preparation, modification and characterisationLDL (1.019,d,1.06 g/ml) were isolated and acetylated as previously [9]. Modification was confirmed by relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) on agarose gels [9]. HDL (1.063,d,1.21 g/ml) for in vitro experiments were isolated from pooled autologously donated human plasma (Gribbles Pathology, South Australia, Australia). Further HDL were isolated from people with Type 1 diabetes and normal controls. ApoA-I was isolated, and discoidal reconstituted HDL (drHDL) containing POPC and apoA-I (initial molar ratio 100:1, final molar ratio 90?99:1 molar ratio, determined from analysis of the particles [24]) were prepared as previously described [24]. Samples were dialysed against PBS before use. Lipid-free apoA-I and drHDL (1 mg apoA-I protein/ml) were glycated with the concentrations of glucose, methylglyoxal or glycolaldehyde (all from Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, USA; catalogue numbers G5767, M0252 and G6805 respectively) stated in the text in PBS at 37uC for 24 h, in sealed tubes flushed with N2 gas. Unreacted reagents were removed by dialysis against PBS.Materials and Methods Ethics statementCollection of blood for LDL isolation, from healthy volunteers, was approved by the Sydney South West Area Health Service (New South Wales, Austral.

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