Tus (black), CK7+/CK202 (black), CDX-2+ (black), and histological subtype. Overall

Tus (black), CK7+/CK202 (black), CDX-2+ (black), and AN 3199 chemical information histological subtype. Overall survival by gene expression derived biliary-like and intestinal-like ampullary subgroups (B). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065144.gValidation of Ampullary Subtypes in an Independent DatasetSince our mRNA profiling data and proteomic analysis of ampullary adenocarcinomas identified two prognostically distinct subgroups of ampullary adenocarcinomas we attempted to validate these findings. Due to the rarity of ampullary adenocarcinoma only one gene expression dataset of ampullary adenocarcinomas has been published. [28] In this dataset of 12 cases only 11 cases had outcome data. The application of our 234 gene classifier was able to identify two groups of ampullary adenocarcinomas (a poor prognosis biliary-like group of 2 cases and a goodprognosis intestinal-like group of 10 cases) that demonstrated differing overall survival, P = 0.018 (Figure S2). In addition, as our two ampullary subgroups could be histologically categorized as either an intestinal subtype or a pancreaticobiliary subtype, we examined the association of histological subtypes with prognosis in an independent cohort of 80 resected ampullary adenocarcinomas. The clinicopahological features of intestinal, pancreaticobiliary and mixed histologic subtypes of ampullary adenocarcinomas are listed in Table 1. Cases with an intestinal histological subtype were more likely to be node negative (p,0.01), have a lower T stage (p,0.01), anGene Profiling of Periampullary CarcinomasFigure 3. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the differentially expressed proteins (P,0.05) between gene expression derived biliary-like and intestinal-like ampullary subgroups. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065144.gassociated ampullary adenoma (p,0.01), a non-CK7+/CK202 cytokeratin profile, (p = 0.03), and have not received adjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.04) compared to the pancreaticobiliary subtype. CDX-2 expression was more common in the intestinal subtype as compared to a pancreaticobiliary subtype, though this did not reach statistical significance, p = 0.07. Neither the cytokeratin 7+/202 expression pattern, nor the expression of CDX-2 was correlated with an improved RFS or OS(Figure 4a?d). In contrast, histological subtype significantly correlated with survival with intestinal, mixed, and pancreaticobiliary subtypes demonstrating a 5-year OS of 70 , 77 , and 50 , and a 5-year RFS of 71 , 66 , and 45 , respectively. As intestinal and mixed histological subtypes had similar outcomes, these two groups when combined demonstrated significant improvements in OS (171 months vs. 62 months, p = 0.006) and RFS (171 months vs. 38 months, p = 0.02) when compared to theGene Profiling of Periampullary CarcinomasFigure 4. Overall survival and relapse-free survival for the 80 patient ampullary dataset stratified by (A,B) CDX-2 expression status, (C,D) CK7+/CK202 expression status, and (E,F) histological subtype, respectively. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065144.gpancreaticobiliary subtype (Figure 4e?f). Although no factors were significantly associated with RFS in multivariate analysis (data not shown), the pancreaticobiliary histological subtype was significantly associated with worse OS by multivariate analysis, Table 2.DiscussionIn this study, we used comparative E studies suggest that over-expression of ODC contributes to transformation by molecular and histological analyses of periampullary adenocarcinomas to gain insights into ampullary adenocarcinoma. Our gene expression analysis hasdemonstrated a molecular distin.Tus (black), CK7+/CK202 (black), CDX-2+ (black), and histological subtype. Overall survival by gene expression derived biliary-like and intestinal-like ampullary subgroups (B). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065144.gValidation of Ampullary Subtypes in an Independent DatasetSince our mRNA profiling data and proteomic analysis of ampullary adenocarcinomas identified two prognostically distinct subgroups of ampullary adenocarcinomas we attempted to validate these findings. Due to the rarity of ampullary adenocarcinoma only one gene expression dataset of ampullary adenocarcinomas has been published. [28] In this dataset of 12 cases only 11 cases had outcome data. The application of our 234 gene classifier was able to identify two groups of ampullary adenocarcinomas (a poor prognosis biliary-like group of 2 cases and a goodprognosis intestinal-like group of 10 cases) that demonstrated differing overall survival, P = 0.018 (Figure S2). In addition, as our two ampullary subgroups could be histologically categorized as either an intestinal subtype or a pancreaticobiliary subtype, we examined the association of histological subtypes with prognosis in an independent cohort of 80 resected ampullary adenocarcinomas. The clinicopahological features of intestinal, pancreaticobiliary and mixed histologic subtypes of ampullary adenocarcinomas are listed in Table 1. Cases with an intestinal histological subtype were more likely to be node negative (p,0.01), have a lower T stage (p,0.01), anGene Profiling of Periampullary CarcinomasFigure 3. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the differentially expressed proteins (P,0.05) between gene expression derived biliary-like and intestinal-like ampullary subgroups. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065144.gassociated ampullary adenoma (p,0.01), a non-CK7+/CK202 cytokeratin profile, (p = 0.03), and have not received adjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.04) compared to the pancreaticobiliary subtype. CDX-2 expression was more common in the intestinal subtype as compared to a pancreaticobiliary subtype, though this did not reach statistical significance, p = 0.07. Neither the cytokeratin 7+/202 expression pattern, nor the expression of CDX-2 was correlated with an improved RFS or OS(Figure 4a?d). In contrast, histological subtype significantly correlated with survival with intestinal, mixed, and pancreaticobiliary subtypes demonstrating a 5-year OS of 70 , 77 , and 50 , and a 5-year RFS of 71 , 66 , and 45 , respectively. As intestinal and mixed histological subtypes had similar outcomes, these two groups when combined demonstrated significant improvements in OS (171 months vs. 62 months, p = 0.006) and RFS (171 months vs. 38 months, p = 0.02) when compared to theGene Profiling of Periampullary CarcinomasFigure 4. Overall survival and relapse-free survival for the 80 patient ampullary dataset stratified by (A,B) CDX-2 expression status, (C,D) CK7+/CK202 expression status, and (E,F) histological subtype, respectively. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065144.gpancreaticobiliary subtype (Figure 4e?f). Although no factors were significantly associated with RFS in multivariate analysis (data not shown), the pancreaticobiliary histological subtype was significantly associated with worse OS by multivariate analysis, Table 2.DiscussionIn this study, we used comparative molecular and histological analyses of periampullary adenocarcinomas to gain insights into ampullary adenocarcinoma. Our gene expression analysis hasdemonstrated a molecular distin.

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