Kness, white matter changes and early death. [3] Histopathological analysis of these

Kness, white matter changes and early death. [3] Histopathological analysis of these patients show significant muscle degeneration and increased apoptosis. [4] There are two current mouse models of laminin mutations used for preclinical studies, dyW and dy2J. The dyW mouse model demonstrates a severe phenotype with poor growth and early death due to absence of the laminin a2 protein. [5] The dy2J model has a milder phenotype with a longer lifespan due to the presence of a truncated laminin a2 protein. [6] Both models display hindlimb paralysis related to demyelination and 10457188 dystrophic changes in the skeletal muscle. Recognition and lack of treatment for CMD patients has generated a need for further preclinical drug testing in CMD mouse models. Miyagoe et al. (1997) described a LAMA2 deficient mouse model (dy3K) with increased TUNEL positive nuclei in degenerating skeletal muscles in LAMA2 knockout mice. [7] Girgenrath et al. (2004) showed improved survival and myofiber histology after applying anti-apoptotic breeding crosses. [8] Dominov et al. (2005) also demonstrated increased growth and survival in LAMA2 null dyW mice with over expression of the antiapoptotic Title Loaded From File protein BCL2. [9] Most recently, Erb et al. (2009) demonstrated a role for the GADPH-Siah1-CBP/p300 apoptosis pathway in dyW mice by demonstrating a beneficial effect on histology, locomotion, skeletal deformities, weight and survival in mice treated with omigapil. [10] This drug was also effective in a mouse model of progressive motor neuropathy. [11] Omigapil (TCH346) was used previously in clinical trials for Ly, these data showed that, upon an oral administration of 57FeSO Parkinson disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis where apoptosis is considered a key pathogenic pathway based on animal models. [12,13] While neither trial demonstrated a clinical effect in these diseases, omigapil was well tolerated and may benefit patients with other neuromuscular diseases. In this study, a phenotypic analysis of preclinical outcomes measures was performed in the dy2J mouse model with truncated laminin a2 protein. These mice were treated with the antiapoptotic agent omigapil at two doses to assess effects on outcome measures. dy2J mice demonstrated functional and histological improvements and these results provide preclinical data for future putative clinical trials in CMD patients.(Columbus Instruments, Columbus OH) as described previously. [14] For forelimb strength, the animals were held so that only the forelimb paws grasped the flat mesh assembly and pulled back until their grip was broken. Five successful forelimb strength measurements within 2 minutes were recorded and the maximum values of each day over 5 day period were used for analysis.Open Field Activity (Digiscan)Locomotor activity as measured using an open field digiscan apparatus (Omnitech Electronics, Columbus, OH) as previously described. [14] A total of 21 measurements per mouse including horizontal activity, vertical activity, total distance, movement time and rest time were recorded every 10 minutes for 1-hour as described previously.[15?7].Whole Body PlethysmographyThe whole body plethysmography system (ADInstruments, St. Paul, MN) utilized a custom mouse chamber developed by the Research Instrument Shop at the University of Pennsylvania to minimize dead space. Other components include the spirometer (ML141), respiratory flow head (MLTL1) and the PowerLab 4/30 with LabChart software. The mouse was brought to the measurement room 15 minutes before the start of the measurement sessi.Kness, white matter changes and early death. [3] Histopathological analysis of these patients show significant muscle degeneration and increased apoptosis. [4] There are two current mouse models of laminin mutations used for preclinical studies, dyW and dy2J. The dyW mouse model demonstrates a severe phenotype with poor growth and early death due to absence of the laminin a2 protein. [5] The dy2J model has a milder phenotype with a longer lifespan due to the presence of a truncated laminin a2 protein. [6] Both models display hindlimb paralysis related to demyelination and 10457188 dystrophic changes in the skeletal muscle. Recognition and lack of treatment for CMD patients has generated a need for further preclinical drug testing in CMD mouse models. Miyagoe et al. (1997) described a LAMA2 deficient mouse model (dy3K) with increased TUNEL positive nuclei in degenerating skeletal muscles in LAMA2 knockout mice. [7] Girgenrath et al. (2004) showed improved survival and myofiber histology after applying anti-apoptotic breeding crosses. [8] Dominov et al. (2005) also demonstrated increased growth and survival in LAMA2 null dyW mice with over expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2. [9] Most recently, Erb et al. (2009) demonstrated a role for the GADPH-Siah1-CBP/p300 apoptosis pathway in dyW mice by demonstrating a beneficial effect on histology, locomotion, skeletal deformities, weight and survival in mice treated with omigapil. [10] This drug was also effective in a mouse model of progressive motor neuropathy. [11] Omigapil (TCH346) was used previously in clinical trials for Parkinson disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis where apoptosis is considered a key pathogenic pathway based on animal models. [12,13] While neither trial demonstrated a clinical effect in these diseases, omigapil was well tolerated and may benefit patients with other neuromuscular diseases. In this study, a phenotypic analysis of preclinical outcomes measures was performed in the dy2J mouse model with truncated laminin a2 protein. These mice were treated with the antiapoptotic agent omigapil at two doses to assess effects on outcome measures. dy2J mice demonstrated functional and histological improvements and these results provide preclinical data for future putative clinical trials in CMD patients.(Columbus Instruments, Columbus OH) as described previously. [14] For forelimb strength, the animals were held so that only the forelimb paws grasped the flat mesh assembly and pulled back until their grip was broken. Five successful forelimb strength measurements within 2 minutes were recorded and the maximum values of each day over 5 day period were used for analysis.Open Field Activity (Digiscan)Locomotor activity as measured using an open field digiscan apparatus (Omnitech Electronics, Columbus, OH) as previously described. [14] A total of 21 measurements per mouse including horizontal activity, vertical activity, total distance, movement time and rest time were recorded every 10 minutes for 1-hour as described previously.[15?7].Whole Body PlethysmographyThe whole body plethysmography system (ADInstruments, St. Paul, MN) utilized a custom mouse chamber developed by the Research Instrument Shop at the University of Pennsylvania to minimize dead space. Other components include the spirometer (ML141), respiratory flow head (MLTL1) and the PowerLab 4/30 with LabChart software. The mouse was brought to the measurement room 15 minutes before the start of the measurement sessi.

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