Source of funds must be clarified). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052096.tfrequency and

Source of funds must be clarified). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052096.tfrequency and dose of Tol-DC administration, allograft survival and the potential mechanisms of interest. Important unpublished data were obtained by contacting corresponding authors whenever Possible. Discrepancies between these two reviewers were resolved by the third reviewer.(Table 1). Generally, the quality of included studies was high in these criteria.Characteristics of included studiesInterventions. Six methods were reported to induce TolDCs. The most commonly used-method was gene modification (4 articles, accounting for 30.76 ), followed by allopeptide-pulsed (3 articles, 23.07 ), other derivation (3 articles, 23.07 ), immature dendritic cells (imDC) (1 article, 7.69 ), drug intervention (1 article, 7.69 ), and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) induction (1 article, 7.69 ) (Table 2). Animal model. Eight studies adopted MHC mismatched inbred mice models, with four MHC mismatched inbred rat (-)-Calyculin A site models (Table 2). Experimental design. Eight Microcystin-LR site articles studied Tol-DCs monotherapy, and 4 articles studied the synergistic effect of immunosuppressive agents or costimulatory blockade with Tol-DC. Seven articles used recipient-derived DCs, six used donor-derived DCs, and another two did not report the DC source. Routes of administration were intravenous (i.v., six articles), intrathymic (i.t., three articles), intraperitoneal (i.p., two articles), subcutaneous (s.c., one article). The Tol-DC doses administered varied 25837696 form from 104 to 107 cells. Nine studies adopted single-injection, and three used multiple injections. All untreated groups were taken as control groups, and only ten studies had negative control groups (Table 2). Outcomes. Prolonged graft survival was reported in 11 of 13 studies, and two reported rejection episodes. Similarly, 10 studies detected Tol-DC induced donor-specific T cell hyporesponsiveness against donor antigens by MLR, 6 detected Th1/Th2 differentiation, 4 detected Treg induction, but only one detected anti-graft cytotoxicity (Table 2).Data analysisAllogeneic pancreatic islet graft survival time was used to assess endpoint outcomes. Meta-analysis could not be used because of incomplete data in most studies. We displayed survival time of both experimental and control groups as x6SD in a forest map, as described previously [9]. Immune tolerance was defined when survival time exceeded 100 days, based on induction of donor specific T cell hyporesponsiveness (MLR), skewing of Th0 to Th2 (CK), induction of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg), and reduction of cytotoxicity against allografts (CTL). We dissected the effects of Tol-DC adoptive transfusion on islet allografts and evaluated potential survival mechanisms.Results Literature search and selection147 relevant studies were identified, consisting of 105 from Embase and 42 from PubMed. To our knowledge, there has not been a systematic review of the literature using similar criteria. We selected 13 studies according to the above inclusion criteria, which included adoptive mouse (9 articles) and rat (4 articles) islet transplantation models [10,13,14,15,16,19,20,21,22,11,12,17,18]. The detection rate in PubMed and Embase was 23.8 (10 articles) and 12.4 (13 articles), respectively (Figure 1).Quality of included studiesThe 13 studies included scores ranging from 4 to 9, and contained 11 studies ranked A [10,11,12,13,14,15,18,19,20,22], one ranked B [17], one ranked C [21] and none ranked DOutcomesimDC prolo.Source of funds must be clarified). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052096.tfrequency and dose of Tol-DC administration, allograft survival and the potential mechanisms of interest. Important unpublished data were obtained by contacting corresponding authors whenever Possible. Discrepancies between these two reviewers were resolved by the third reviewer.(Table 1). Generally, the quality of included studies was high in these criteria.Characteristics of included studiesInterventions. Six methods were reported to induce TolDCs. The most commonly used-method was gene modification (4 articles, accounting for 30.76 ), followed by allopeptide-pulsed (3 articles, 23.07 ), other derivation (3 articles, 23.07 ), immature dendritic cells (imDC) (1 article, 7.69 ), drug intervention (1 article, 7.69 ), and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) induction (1 article, 7.69 ) (Table 2). Animal model. Eight studies adopted MHC mismatched inbred mice models, with four MHC mismatched inbred rat models (Table 2). Experimental design. Eight articles studied Tol-DCs monotherapy, and 4 articles studied the synergistic effect of immunosuppressive agents or costimulatory blockade with Tol-DC. Seven articles used recipient-derived DCs, six used donor-derived DCs, and another two did not report the DC source. Routes of administration were intravenous (i.v., six articles), intrathymic (i.t., three articles), intraperitoneal (i.p., two articles), subcutaneous (s.c., one article). The Tol-DC doses administered varied 25837696 form from 104 to 107 cells. Nine studies adopted single-injection, and three used multiple injections. All untreated groups were taken as control groups, and only ten studies had negative control groups (Table 2). Outcomes. Prolonged graft survival was reported in 11 of 13 studies, and two reported rejection episodes. Similarly, 10 studies detected Tol-DC induced donor-specific T cell hyporesponsiveness against donor antigens by MLR, 6 detected Th1/Th2 differentiation, 4 detected Treg induction, but only one detected anti-graft cytotoxicity (Table 2).Data analysisAllogeneic pancreatic islet graft survival time was used to assess endpoint outcomes. Meta-analysis could not be used because of incomplete data in most studies. We displayed survival time of both experimental and control groups as x6SD in a forest map, as described previously [9]. Immune tolerance was defined when survival time exceeded 100 days, based on induction of donor specific T cell hyporesponsiveness (MLR), skewing of Th0 to Th2 (CK), induction of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg), and reduction of cytotoxicity against allografts (CTL). We dissected the effects of Tol-DC adoptive transfusion on islet allografts and evaluated potential survival mechanisms.Results Literature search and selection147 relevant studies were identified, consisting of 105 from Embase and 42 from PubMed. To our knowledge, there has not been a systematic review of the literature using similar criteria. We selected 13 studies according to the above inclusion criteria, which included adoptive mouse (9 articles) and rat (4 articles) islet transplantation models [10,13,14,15,16,19,20,21,22,11,12,17,18]. The detection rate in PubMed and Embase was 23.8 (10 articles) and 12.4 (13 articles), respectively (Figure 1).Quality of included studiesThe 13 studies included scores ranging from 4 to 9, and contained 11 studies ranked A [10,11,12,13,14,15,18,19,20,22], one ranked B [17], one ranked C [21] and none ranked DOutcomesimDC prolo.

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