Ted in unchanged CD96 MFI. Furthermore, in vitro TCR stimulation consistently

Ted in unchanged CD96 MFI. Furthermore, in vitro TCR stimulation consistently demonstrated decreased percentage of CD96expressing CD8+ T cells. This suggests that the context in which TCR engagement is conducted contributes to the outcome in CD96 regulation and it is possible that a balance of both LPS and antigenic stimulation affect final CD96 expression and composition in the T cell population in vivo of HIV-1 infected individuals. CD96 has been shown to enhance NK cell cytotoxicity [12], where the specific function on T cells has not been completely defined. Wehypothesized that CD96 may play a similar role for CD8+ T cell cytotoxic capacity. Since cytotoxic ability is increased with CD8+ T cell KDM5A-IN-1 differentiation, we expected that CD96 would predominantly be present on more differentiated cells. However, we found that CD96 was expressed in all CD8+ T cell subset populations. When investigating the significance of CD96 expression by CD8+ T cells, we observed that cells which retained CD96 expression produced IFNc following stimulation. In contrast, cells lacking CD96 15481974 readily produced both perforin and IFNc suggesting that these cells were highly active and cytotoxic cells. It is possible that circulating CD96neg CD8+ T cells represent a subset of effector memory cells notFigure 4. The absolute number and CD96 MFI of CD96+CD8+ T cells correlates with CD4+ T cell counts. Association of A) CD96 MFI on CD8+ T cells (n = 37) and B) the number of CD96+CD8+ T cells with CD4+ T cell counts (n = 36). Correlations were determined by two-tailed nonparametric Spearman correlations. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051696.gCD96 Expression during HIV-1 Infectiondistinguishable using our surface markers, which are known to produce both perforin and cytokine [26]. Perforin is an effector molecule necessary for cytotoxic activity, which mediates destruction of virus-infected cells. As expected, perforin has been found to be a marker of viral control in HIV-1 infected individuals where elite controllers have previously been shown to have a higher degree of perforin-expressing HIV-1specific CD8+ T cells [6,7,27,28,29]. However, misdirected or overproduction of perforin in an HIV-1 infected individual could potentially result in increased immunopathogenesis and a drop in CD4+ T cell counts. In support of this is the observation that elevated perforin levels were detected in serum from chronically infected individuals [30]. Similar to Onlamoon et al. (2012) [31] we investigated the bulk CD8+ T cell population in untreated HIV-1 infected individuals rather than HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells to get a better understanding of the general effector status that potentially contributes to overall immunopathogenesis. Consistent with the reported finding of a generalized altered functional CD8+ T cell phenotype during HIV-1 infection [31], we found an increase in CD96neg CD8+ T cells in HIV-1 infected individuals, which based on our observations in 125-65-5 site healthy individuals represent highly active and cytotoxic cells producing both IFNc and perforin. Furthermore, the density of CD96 expression as well as presence of CD96+ CD8+ T cells were positively associated with CD4+ T cell counts. Although, the function of CD96neg CD8+ Tcells was only assessed in healthy individuals and the function of phenotypically equivalent T cells present in HIV-1 infected individuals remain to be confirmed, these observations suggest that there may be a complex balance between beneficial and detrimental.Ted in unchanged CD96 MFI. Furthermore, in vitro TCR stimulation consistently demonstrated decreased percentage of CD96expressing CD8+ T cells. This suggests that the context in which TCR engagement is conducted contributes to the outcome in CD96 regulation and it is possible that a balance of both LPS and antigenic stimulation affect final CD96 expression and composition in the T cell population in vivo of HIV-1 infected individuals. CD96 has been shown to enhance NK cell cytotoxicity [12], where the specific function on T cells has not been completely defined. Wehypothesized that CD96 may play a similar role for CD8+ T cell cytotoxic capacity. Since cytotoxic ability is increased with CD8+ T cell differentiation, we expected that CD96 would predominantly be present on more differentiated cells. However, we found that CD96 was expressed in all CD8+ T cell subset populations. When investigating the significance of CD96 expression by CD8+ T cells, we observed that cells which retained CD96 expression produced IFNc following stimulation. In contrast, cells lacking CD96 15481974 readily produced both perforin and IFNc suggesting that these cells were highly active and cytotoxic cells. It is possible that circulating CD96neg CD8+ T cells represent a subset of effector memory cells notFigure 4. The absolute number and CD96 MFI of CD96+CD8+ T cells correlates with CD4+ T cell counts. Association of A) CD96 MFI on CD8+ T cells (n = 37) and B) the number of CD96+CD8+ T cells with CD4+ T cell counts (n = 36). Correlations were determined by two-tailed nonparametric Spearman correlations. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051696.gCD96 Expression during HIV-1 Infectiondistinguishable using our surface markers, which are known to produce both perforin and cytokine [26]. Perforin is an effector molecule necessary for cytotoxic activity, which mediates destruction of virus-infected cells. As expected, perforin has been found to be a marker of viral control in HIV-1 infected individuals where elite controllers have previously been shown to have a higher degree of perforin-expressing HIV-1specific CD8+ T cells [6,7,27,28,29]. However, misdirected or overproduction of perforin in an HIV-1 infected individual could potentially result in increased immunopathogenesis and a drop in CD4+ T cell counts. In support of this is the observation that elevated perforin levels were detected in serum from chronically infected individuals [30]. Similar to Onlamoon et al. (2012) [31] we investigated the bulk CD8+ T cell population in untreated HIV-1 infected individuals rather than HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells to get a better understanding of the general effector status that potentially contributes to overall immunopathogenesis. Consistent with the reported finding of a generalized altered functional CD8+ T cell phenotype during HIV-1 infection [31], we found an increase in CD96neg CD8+ T cells in HIV-1 infected individuals, which based on our observations in healthy individuals represent highly active and cytotoxic cells producing both IFNc and perforin. Furthermore, the density of CD96 expression as well as presence of CD96+ CD8+ T cells were positively associated with CD4+ T cell counts. Although, the function of CD96neg CD8+ Tcells was only assessed in healthy individuals and the function of phenotypically equivalent T cells present in HIV-1 infected individuals remain to be confirmed, these observations suggest that there may be a complex balance between beneficial and detrimental.

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