Ncreased TORC1 activity results in increases in cell size, and in

Ncreased TORC1 activity Human parathyroid hormone-(1-34) web results in increases in cell size, and in some cases, increased cell proliferation, as well as activation of stress response pathways [2?] Regulation of TORC1 activity is mediated by the activity of Rheb GTPase. Rheb in turn is controlled by a heterodimeric complex composed of products of the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 and 2 genes (TSC1 and TSC2, or hamartin and tuberin, respectively) which act together as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) to limit Rheb by maintaining it in a GDP bound state (Fig. 1A). Chronic activation of the TORC1 complex is associated with human pathologies such as the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, a tumor suppressor gene syndrome characterized by growth of benign tumors in multiple organs along with neurological manifestations resulting from inactivating mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 genes [6]. During development, inappropriate TORC1 activity can affect the timing and fidelity of cell fate assignments [7,8], but the mechanisms governing these defects are unclear. Here we show that chronic activation of TORC1 in the Drosophila pupal epidermis results in hyperpigmen-tation of mechanosensory bristles and adult cuticle due to increased levels of tyrosine hydroxylase.Results TSC1 and TSC2 Regulate Drosophila Adult Pigmentation Through RhebIn a previous study, we showed that increased Rheb activity results in cell fate specification defects in the mechanosensory bristle lineage in Drosophila, consistent with inappropriate Notch activity [8]. Here, we sought to determine whether increased Rheb activity causes other differentiation defects during Drosophila pupal development that would be visible on the adult fly. We used the Gal4/UAS system [9] to drive high levels of Rheb expression in pupal epithelial tissues with pannier-Gal4. The resulting flies showed an increase in cell size and, at a low frequency, duplication of external cells in the mechanosensory organs. In addition, we noted the appearance of increased cuticular pigmentation in adult flies. The increased pigmentation pattern is particularly striking along the NT 157 dorsal midline of the thorax and abdomen, where pannier-Gal4 drives strong expression (Fig. 1A ). In contrast to wildtype controls, Rheb overexpressing flies showed a dark patch of pigment in the central posterior region of the thorax, and a broadening of the dorsal pigment stripe in abdominal segments A3 and A4 (Fig. S1A ). We noted that although Rheb wasTORC1 Controls Drosophila PigmentationFigure 1. Rheb drives increased pigmentation of the pupal and adult cuticle. The evolutionarily conserved TSC pathway regulates protein synthesis and cell growth through activation of TOR complex 1 (TORC1) (A) [12]. Uniform pigmentation of the adult male thorax in pannier-Gal4/+ (we will use the abbreviation “-G4” for Gal4 in this and subsequent figures) (B). Pattern of expression of pannier-Gal4, UAS-Rheb-GFP on the pupal thorax (C). “trident pattern” pigmentation in the posterior thorax UAS-Rheb, pannier-Gal4 adult male fly (D). MARCM clones of tsc1w243x and tsc2109 (E,F), exhibit posterior pigmentation (white arrowheads) in clones (clones marked with GFP, see L-O). UAS-TSC1 and UAS-TSC2 suppress the increased growth and pigmentation in pannier-Gal4, UAS-Rheb flies (G). UAS-TSC2RNAi enhances the increased growth and pigmentation in pannier-Gal4, UASRheb flies (H). pannier-Gal4, UAS-Rheb shows premature bristle pigmentation in a dorsal stripe in stage P11 pupa (I). Pupa, stage P10 in wi.Ncreased TORC1 activity results in increases in cell size, and in some cases, increased cell proliferation, as well as activation of stress response pathways [2?] Regulation of TORC1 activity is mediated by the activity of Rheb GTPase. Rheb in turn is controlled by a heterodimeric complex composed of products of the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 and 2 genes (TSC1 and TSC2, or hamartin and tuberin, respectively) which act together as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) to limit Rheb by maintaining it in a GDP bound state (Fig. 1A). Chronic activation of the TORC1 complex is associated with human pathologies such as the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, a tumor suppressor gene syndrome characterized by growth of benign tumors in multiple organs along with neurological manifestations resulting from inactivating mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 genes [6]. During development, inappropriate TORC1 activity can affect the timing and fidelity of cell fate assignments [7,8], but the mechanisms governing these defects are unclear. Here we show that chronic activation of TORC1 in the Drosophila pupal epidermis results in hyperpigmen-tation of mechanosensory bristles and adult cuticle due to increased levels of tyrosine hydroxylase.Results TSC1 and TSC2 Regulate Drosophila Adult Pigmentation Through RhebIn a previous study, we showed that increased Rheb activity results in cell fate specification defects in the mechanosensory bristle lineage in Drosophila, consistent with inappropriate Notch activity [8]. Here, we sought to determine whether increased Rheb activity causes other differentiation defects during Drosophila pupal development that would be visible on the adult fly. We used the Gal4/UAS system [9] to drive high levels of Rheb expression in pupal epithelial tissues with pannier-Gal4. The resulting flies showed an increase in cell size and, at a low frequency, duplication of external cells in the mechanosensory organs. In addition, we noted the appearance of increased cuticular pigmentation in adult flies. The increased pigmentation pattern is particularly striking along the dorsal midline of the thorax and abdomen, where pannier-Gal4 drives strong expression (Fig. 1A ). In contrast to wildtype controls, Rheb overexpressing flies showed a dark patch of pigment in the central posterior region of the thorax, and a broadening of the dorsal pigment stripe in abdominal segments A3 and A4 (Fig. S1A ). We noted that although Rheb wasTORC1 Controls Drosophila PigmentationFigure 1. Rheb drives increased pigmentation of the pupal and adult cuticle. The evolutionarily conserved TSC pathway regulates protein synthesis and cell growth through activation of TOR complex 1 (TORC1) (A) [12]. Uniform pigmentation of the adult male thorax in pannier-Gal4/+ (we will use the abbreviation “-G4” for Gal4 in this and subsequent figures) (B). Pattern of expression of pannier-Gal4, UAS-Rheb-GFP on the pupal thorax (C). “trident pattern” pigmentation in the posterior thorax UAS-Rheb, pannier-Gal4 adult male fly (D). MARCM clones of tsc1w243x and tsc2109 (E,F), exhibit posterior pigmentation (white arrowheads) in clones (clones marked with GFP, see L-O). UAS-TSC1 and UAS-TSC2 suppress the increased growth and pigmentation in pannier-Gal4, UAS-Rheb flies (G). UAS-TSC2RNAi enhances the increased growth and pigmentation in pannier-Gal4, UASRheb flies (H). pannier-Gal4, UAS-Rheb shows premature bristle pigmentation in a dorsal stripe in stage P11 pupa (I). Pupa, stage P10 in wi.

Leave a Reply