A total period of 60 min, and serial dilutions were plated onto

A total period of 60 min, and serial dilutions were plated onto LB agar plates containing 30 mg/ml kanamycin. The number of colonies was counted after overnight incubation at 37uC. “Survival” is defined as the ratio of CFU after exposure to ethanol to the CFU when ethanol is absent.Phenotype SelectionThe transformants were cultivated in 50-ml LB medium containing 40 g/L ethanol at 37uC, 200 rpm for 12?6 h, and repeated for two subcultures. Cells were plated onto LB agar plates after each round of selection. Individual colony was randomly picked, and the recombinant plasmids were extracted and sequenced.Cell Growth ProfileFor each mutant strain, one percent overnight seed (v/v) was inoculated into 10-ml fresh LB broth containing various ethanolRNA IsolationOne percent (v/v) overnight cell culture was inoculated into LB medium with or without 60 g/l ethanol. Cells were cultured forImprove Ethanol Tolerance via Global Regulator CRP2.5 h in the absence of ethanol, or for 8 h in 60 g/l ethanol. The isolation of total RNA was performed using PureLinkH RNA mini kit (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA), with PureLinkH DNase (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) treatment according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The quality and integrity of the isolated RNA was determined through spectrophotometer and agarose gel electrophoresis. About 800 ng total RNA was converted into cDNA by reverse transcription in a 20-ml reaction mixture using High Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) with random primer mix provided following the recommended protocol.Table 2. Amino acid substitutions in E1 3.Mutant E1 E2 EAmino acid substitutions H31D D53N G177A M59T V47E Q80Ldoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057628.tQuantitative Real-time Reverse Transcription PCR (RTPCR) using OpenArrayH TechnologyRT-PCR using OpenArrayH Real-time PCR instrument (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) was performed in triplicates. The OpenArrayH technology is a high Sermorelin throughput real-time PCR platform, which allows assessing the expression of 244 genes on one single plate. The LightcyclerH (Roche, Germany) FastStartH (Roche, Germany) DNA Master SYBRH (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) Green I master mix (Roche, Germany) was used in reformatted OpenArrayH real-time PCR plates (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA). 33-nl reaction mixture was 25331948 loaded into each through-hole on the OpenArrayH real-time PCR plates with the OpenArrayH AccuFillTM system (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA). The bacterial 16S rRNA (rrsG) was used as internal standard and the sequence of the primers are given in Table S1. The values of cycle threshold (Ct) were provided by the OpenArrayH Real-time PCR Analysis Software Licochalcone-A chemical information Version 1.0.4, and 22DDCt method of relative quantification was utilized to compute the relative expression level. The p-value was calculated by student’s t-test using IBM SPSS Statistics Software Version 19.concentration (62 g/l) by comparing their growth performance to that of the control and (JW5702 Dkan+blank plasmid pKSC). When cultured without ethanol, all mutants and the control presented similar cell growth rate around 0.48 h21 (Figure 1A). With increasing ethanol concentration in the culture medium, E1?E3 demonstrated better growth than that of the control with E2 displaying the best ethanol tolerance. When ethanol concentration reached 62 g/l (Figure 1B ), the growth rate of E2 was calculated at 0.08 h21, compared to the control’s 0.06 h21. T.A total period of 60 min, and serial dilutions were plated onto LB agar plates containing 30 mg/ml kanamycin. The number of colonies was counted after overnight incubation at 37uC. “Survival” is defined as the ratio of CFU after exposure to ethanol to the CFU when ethanol is absent.Phenotype SelectionThe transformants were cultivated in 50-ml LB medium containing 40 g/L ethanol at 37uC, 200 rpm for 12?6 h, and repeated for two subcultures. Cells were plated onto LB agar plates after each round of selection. Individual colony was randomly picked, and the recombinant plasmids were extracted and sequenced.Cell Growth ProfileFor each mutant strain, one percent overnight seed (v/v) was inoculated into 10-ml fresh LB broth containing various ethanolRNA IsolationOne percent (v/v) overnight cell culture was inoculated into LB medium with or without 60 g/l ethanol. Cells were cultured forImprove Ethanol Tolerance via Global Regulator CRP2.5 h in the absence of ethanol, or for 8 h in 60 g/l ethanol. The isolation of total RNA was performed using PureLinkH RNA mini kit (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA), with PureLinkH DNase (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) treatment according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The quality and integrity of the isolated RNA was determined through spectrophotometer and agarose gel electrophoresis. About 800 ng total RNA was converted into cDNA by reverse transcription in a 20-ml reaction mixture using High Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) with random primer mix provided following the recommended protocol.Table 2. Amino acid substitutions in E1 3.Mutant E1 E2 EAmino acid substitutions H31D D53N G177A M59T V47E Q80Ldoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057628.tQuantitative Real-time Reverse Transcription PCR (RTPCR) using OpenArrayH TechnologyRT-PCR using OpenArrayH Real-time PCR instrument (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) was performed in triplicates. The OpenArrayH technology is a high throughput real-time PCR platform, which allows assessing the expression of 244 genes on one single plate. The LightcyclerH (Roche, Germany) FastStartH (Roche, Germany) DNA Master SYBRH (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) Green I master mix (Roche, Germany) was used in reformatted OpenArrayH real-time PCR plates (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA). 33-nl reaction mixture was 25331948 loaded into each through-hole on the OpenArrayH real-time PCR plates with the OpenArrayH AccuFillTM system (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA). The bacterial 16S rRNA (rrsG) was used as internal standard and the sequence of the primers are given in Table S1. The values of cycle threshold (Ct) were provided by the OpenArrayH Real-time PCR Analysis Software Version 1.0.4, and 22DDCt method of relative quantification was utilized to compute the relative expression level. The p-value was calculated by student’s t-test using IBM SPSS Statistics Software Version 19.concentration (62 g/l) by comparing their growth performance to that of the control and (JW5702 Dkan+blank plasmid pKSC). When cultured without ethanol, all mutants and the control presented similar cell growth rate around 0.48 h21 (Figure 1A). With increasing ethanol concentration in the culture medium, E1?E3 demonstrated better growth than that of the control with E2 displaying the best ethanol tolerance. When ethanol concentration reached 62 g/l (Figure 1B ), the growth rate of E2 was calculated at 0.08 h21, compared to the control’s 0.06 h21. T.

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