Average masses.ResultsThe HEp-2 cell proteome was analyzed following cell treatment

Average masses.ResultsThe HEp-2 cell proteome was analyzed following cell treatment with either rifaximin, acetone (control), rifamycin (control antibiotic), or left untreated. A total of 1,164 spots were analyzed using the Progenesis SameSpots software and the Progenesis PG240 software. Representative gels analyzed for differential expression between cells treated with Title Loaded From File rifaximin compared to rifamycin or rifaximin compared to media alone are shown (Figure 1A and 1B, respectively). Acetone treated cells yielded a profile similar to that of rifamycin-treated cells or untreated cells (data not shown). Comparison of the 2-D gel profile of HEp-2 cells treated with rifaximin relative to the profiles defined for HEp-2 cells in each of the respective control groups identified 184 polypeptide spots differentially up- or down-regulated, however, only 36 spots were selected for sequencing based on their differential expression levels. Of the 36 protein spots, 26 spots sequenced were up- or down-regulated in rifaximin-treated cells by 2.0-fold relative to the expression profile in both control groups. Eight protein spots were up- or down-regulated by 2.0 in one of the two control groups analyzed. Spot 180 (intestinal-type alkaline phosphatase) was up-regulated and spot 591 (protein haymaker) was down-regulated, relative to both control groups by 1.7 (Table 1). A total of 15 protein spots were down-regulated and 21 protein spots were up-regulated, in the rifaximin treated group compared 1315463 to cells treated with rifamycin, media alone, or acetone (data not shown) (Table 1). Spots 406 (NDRG1) and 487 (no match) (Table 1) were not significantly different in either untreated cells or rifamycin-treated cells (relative to the expression profile observed for rifaximin-treated cells) and are therefore not discussed further. Spots corresponding to proteins significantly upor down-regulated were cut out, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by MALDI-MS at the Protein Chemistry Core Facility at Colombia University (Tables 2 and 3) and classified by their respective functions (Table 4). Of the spots analyzed, 26 unique polypeptides were positively identified, two polypeptides were tentatively identified as tubulin beta chain and heat shock protein HSP 90, and 11 polypeptides were unidentified. Most proteins positively identified were associated with either cell transcription/ translation (n = 11), cell structure (n = 3), or metabolism (n = 3) (Table 4).2-D Gel Image AnalysisTo conduct comparisons between treatment groups, duplicate gels obtained from each sample were scanned with a laser densitometer. The scanner was checked for linearity prior to scanning with a calibrated Neutral Density Filter Set. The images were analyzed using Progenesis SameSpots software (version 4.0, Nonlinear Dynamics, Durham, NC) and Progenesis PG240 software (version 2006, Nonlinear Dynamics, Durham, NC). The general method of computerized analysis for these pairs included image warping followed by spot finding, background subtraction (average on boundary), matching, and quantification in conjunction with detailed manual checking. Spot percentages would be equal to spot Title Loaded From File integrated density above background (volume) expressed as a percentage of total density above background of all spots measured. Differences were defined as fold-change of spot percentages.Protein Digestion and IdentificationProteins up- or down-regulated by more than 1.7-fold were cut out, washed, digested with trypsin.Average masses.ResultsThe HEp-2 cell proteome was analyzed following cell treatment with either rifaximin, acetone (control), rifamycin (control antibiotic), or left untreated. A total of 1,164 spots were analyzed using the Progenesis SameSpots software and the Progenesis PG240 software. Representative gels analyzed for differential expression between cells treated with rifaximin compared to rifamycin or rifaximin compared to media alone are shown (Figure 1A and 1B, respectively). Acetone treated cells yielded a profile similar to that of rifamycin-treated cells or untreated cells (data not shown). Comparison of the 2-D gel profile of HEp-2 cells treated with rifaximin relative to the profiles defined for HEp-2 cells in each of the respective control groups identified 184 polypeptide spots differentially up- or down-regulated, however, only 36 spots were selected for sequencing based on their differential expression levels. Of the 36 protein spots, 26 spots sequenced were up- or down-regulated in rifaximin-treated cells by 2.0-fold relative to the expression profile in both control groups. Eight protein spots were up- or down-regulated by 2.0 in one of the two control groups analyzed. Spot 180 (intestinal-type alkaline phosphatase) was up-regulated and spot 591 (protein haymaker) was down-regulated, relative to both control groups by 1.7 (Table 1). A total of 15 protein spots were down-regulated and 21 protein spots were up-regulated, in the rifaximin treated group compared 1315463 to cells treated with rifamycin, media alone, or acetone (data not shown) (Table 1). Spots 406 (NDRG1) and 487 (no match) (Table 1) were not significantly different in either untreated cells or rifamycin-treated cells (relative to the expression profile observed for rifaximin-treated cells) and are therefore not discussed further. Spots corresponding to proteins significantly upor down-regulated were cut out, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by MALDI-MS at the Protein Chemistry Core Facility at Colombia University (Tables 2 and 3) and classified by their respective functions (Table 4). Of the spots analyzed, 26 unique polypeptides were positively identified, two polypeptides were tentatively identified as tubulin beta chain and heat shock protein HSP 90, and 11 polypeptides were unidentified. Most proteins positively identified were associated with either cell transcription/ translation (n = 11), cell structure (n = 3), or metabolism (n = 3) (Table 4).2-D Gel Image AnalysisTo conduct comparisons between treatment groups, duplicate gels obtained from each sample were scanned with a laser densitometer. The scanner was checked for linearity prior to scanning with a calibrated Neutral Density Filter Set. The images were analyzed using Progenesis SameSpots software (version 4.0, Nonlinear Dynamics, Durham, NC) and Progenesis PG240 software (version 2006, Nonlinear Dynamics, Durham, NC). The general method of computerized analysis for these pairs included image warping followed by spot finding, background subtraction (average on boundary), matching, and quantification in conjunction with detailed manual checking. Spot percentages would be equal to spot integrated density above background (volume) expressed as a percentage of total density above background of all spots measured. Differences were defined as fold-change of spot percentages.Protein Digestion and IdentificationProteins up- or down-regulated by more than 1.7-fold were cut out, washed, digested with trypsin.

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