Our results provide direct in vivo evidence that besides a role in the stability of hippocampal place fields

cultivar of soybean. In contrast, the more tolerant genotype CE704 did not display any such phenomenon and maintained open stomata and efficient transpiration. This condition probably led to a greater water loss from its leaves but, at the same time, allowed for the maintenance of efficient photosynthesis. In fact, the JNJ-7777120 sensitive genotype showed a slight decrease in PN caused by drought, in contrast to CE704, which was characterized by highly efficient photosynthesis even after 6 days of drought. Lopes et al., as well as Tardieu have suggested that genotypes displaying an early stomatal closure should have a good tolerance particularly under conditions of long and severe water deficit because they would be able to decrease hydraulic gradients and to save soil water for a longer time than those with high gs. The drawback would be their lower growth capacity and potential biomass accumulation after the end of drought period, as the closure of stomata affects photosynthetic efficiency and, subsequently, biomass production. On the other hand, the more risky strategy of maintaining stomata open even under drought conditions would be beneficial under mild to moderate water deficits or in conditions where periodical rewatering occurs, as the plant would be able to retain a relatively Drought Tolerance in Maize normal growth capacity. Thus, although low stomatal conductance is usually regarded as a general response of plants to drought conditions and as a trait associated with drought tolerance, it probably functions as such only under severe drought scenarios, whereas under mild water deficiencies, the maintenance of open stomata would be more profitable. The Response to Drought Stress is Characterized by the Up-regulation of Protective Proteins In some cases, another strategy for drought tolerance can also play a role: the protection of cells from injury via various adjustments on biochemical and molecular level, particularly increased synthesis of various osmoprotectants and antioxidants, changes in cell wall elasticity, the induction of dehydrins and other proteins with a protective role as well as specific stressassociated proteins involved in the regulation of transcription, post-transcriptional processes or signaling. Drought stress can result in changes in the protein content through changes in gene expression or altered protein stability, degradation or modifications accompanying various cellular processes that reflect both drought-induced damage/metabolism failure and adjustment, adaptation and homeostasis maintenance. The majority of the proteins identified in our study responded to drought stress similarly in both compared genotypes; however, approximately 38% of the differentially expressed proteins were up-regulated in one genotype and down-regulated in the other PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22189542 one. This finding indicates that the differential sensitivity of the examined genotypes to drought is associated with changes in a limited fraction of proteins and/or depends on the extent of the quantitative changes in protein levels. Similar results were observed by Peng et al., who found cultivar-specific differences in the drought/salinity-induced changes of the wheat proteome; many of these differences involved antioxidant proteins. The most represented functional category of proteins responding to drought in our case contained various chaperones, chaperonins, heat-shock proteins and other proteins that participate in protein folding. These proteins were also among t

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