Ations with 18F-FDG uptake. All correlations were positive. VCAM-1 had the

Ations with 18F-FDG uptake. All correlations were positive. VCAM-1 had the highest purchase AVP correlation (R = 0.61, p,0.001). The same was true for the next group, markers of macrophages/inflammation. Both CD68 and OPN were positively correlated with SUVmean. CD68 exhibited the strongest correlation (R = 0.70, p,0.001). LOX-1, the scavenger receptor, was also positively and significantly correlated to SUVmean (R = 0.53, p,0.001). The gene expression of all markers of hypoxia exhibited significant negative correlations with 18 F-FDG uptake. Also TF was negatively correlated with SUVmean and exhibited the strongest correlation (R = -0.71, p,0.001).ThrombogenecityTF All p-values were Bonferroni corrected. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050908.t003 20.71 ,0.Multivariate Linear Regression Analysis of Gene Expression of the Molecular Markers Indolactam V biological activity Relative to SUVmeanF-FDGAs all molecular markers were significantly correlated with SUVmean, they were all included in a multivariate analysis. After elimination, CD68 (b = 0.60, p,0.001), OPN (b = 20.12, p = 0.005), TF (b = 20.37, p,0.001) and VCAM-1 (b = 20.23, p = 0.06) remained in the final model with an R2 of 0.60 (p,0.001). The univariate analyses of the 4 genes left in the final model are shown in Figure 5.FDG and Gene Expression in Murine AtherosclerosisFigure 5. Univariate linear regression analysis of gene expression relative to SUVmean. Univariate linear regression analysis of gene expression relative to SUVmean (N = 98). A CD68 relative to SUVmean. B OPN relative to SUVmean. C TF relative to SUVmean. D VCAM-1 relative to SUVmean. The 95 confidence interval is indicated by the broken lines. All p-values were Bonferroni corrected. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050908.gDiscussionOur study showed increased uptake of 18F-FDG in apoE2/2 mice on high-fat diet compared to mice on normal chow and the uptake increased with duration of diet. This supports recent findings, that 18F-FDG can be used to follow the progression of atherosclerosis in mice [9]. To further validate the image-based method, we also performed ex vivo gamma counting of all vessels that were PET-imaged. Ex vivo counting is devoid of any partial volume and spillover effects and may be considered a reference for tracer uptake. Indeed the two patterns of FDG uptake was in essence identical proving that when using our protocol for animal handling and imaging, spillover is of no concern. Accordingly, a strong correlation between the two methods was found. Secondly, we identified 4 genes involved in atherogenesis that together explained 60 of the 18F-FDG 1516647 uptake. 18 F-FDG is a glucose analogue taken up by metabolic active cells [17] and evidence suggests that uptake in atherosclerotic lesions correlates with vascular inflammation. Macrophages are thought to be the dominant cell type responsible for the uptake, although it has not been established conclusively [6,18].To examine the molecular processes contributing to the uptake of 18F-FDG in the aortas of apoE2/2 mice, we investigated the gene expression of 10 molecular markers representing different molecular processes important in the atherogenesis. Surprisingly, we found that all of these markers had a significant correlation with the uptake of 18F-FDG assessed as SUVmean.Monocyte/macrophage RecruitmentCXCL-1 and MCP-1 are chemokines important for the recruitment of immune cells to sites of tissue injury and infection. Both chemokines are produced by a variety of cells and have been demonstrated in human a.Ations with 18F-FDG uptake. All correlations were positive. VCAM-1 had the highest correlation (R = 0.61, p,0.001). The same was true for the next group, markers of macrophages/inflammation. Both CD68 and OPN were positively correlated with SUVmean. CD68 exhibited the strongest correlation (R = 0.70, p,0.001). LOX-1, the scavenger receptor, was also positively and significantly correlated to SUVmean (R = 0.53, p,0.001). The gene expression of all markers of hypoxia exhibited significant negative correlations with 18 F-FDG uptake. Also TF was negatively correlated with SUVmean and exhibited the strongest correlation (R = -0.71, p,0.001).ThrombogenecityTF All p-values were Bonferroni corrected. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050908.t003 20.71 ,0.Multivariate Linear Regression Analysis of Gene Expression of the Molecular Markers Relative to SUVmeanF-FDGAs all molecular markers were significantly correlated with SUVmean, they were all included in a multivariate analysis. After elimination, CD68 (b = 0.60, p,0.001), OPN (b = 20.12, p = 0.005), TF (b = 20.37, p,0.001) and VCAM-1 (b = 20.23, p = 0.06) remained in the final model with an R2 of 0.60 (p,0.001). The univariate analyses of the 4 genes left in the final model are shown in Figure 5.FDG and Gene Expression in Murine AtherosclerosisFigure 5. Univariate linear regression analysis of gene expression relative to SUVmean. Univariate linear regression analysis of gene expression relative to SUVmean (N = 98). A CD68 relative to SUVmean. B OPN relative to SUVmean. C TF relative to SUVmean. D VCAM-1 relative to SUVmean. The 95 confidence interval is indicated by the broken lines. All p-values were Bonferroni corrected. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050908.gDiscussionOur study showed increased uptake of 18F-FDG in apoE2/2 mice on high-fat diet compared to mice on normal chow and the uptake increased with duration of diet. This supports recent findings, that 18F-FDG can be used to follow the progression of atherosclerosis in mice [9]. To further validate the image-based method, we also performed ex vivo gamma counting of all vessels that were PET-imaged. Ex vivo counting is devoid of any partial volume and spillover effects and may be considered a reference for tracer uptake. Indeed the two patterns of FDG uptake was in essence identical proving that when using our protocol for animal handling and imaging, spillover is of no concern. Accordingly, a strong correlation between the two methods was found. Secondly, we identified 4 genes involved in atherogenesis that together explained 60 of the 18F-FDG 1516647 uptake. 18 F-FDG is a glucose analogue taken up by metabolic active cells [17] and evidence suggests that uptake in atherosclerotic lesions correlates with vascular inflammation. Macrophages are thought to be the dominant cell type responsible for the uptake, although it has not been established conclusively [6,18].To examine the molecular processes contributing to the uptake of 18F-FDG in the aortas of apoE2/2 mice, we investigated the gene expression of 10 molecular markers representing different molecular processes important in the atherogenesis. Surprisingly, we found that all of these markers had a significant correlation with the uptake of 18F-FDG assessed as SUVmean.Monocyte/macrophage RecruitmentCXCL-1 and MCP-1 are chemokines important for the recruitment of immune cells to sites of tissue injury and infection. Both chemokines are produced by a variety of cells and have been demonstrated in human a.

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