Model offers the advantage of taking into account multiple determinations in

Model offers the advantage of taking into account BI-78D3 multiple determinations in an individual subject as well as the influence of potential confounding variables. The variable corresponding to use of EGb761H and piracetam was taken as a time-dependent variable. The output of the model was expressed as a b coefficient,842-07-9 site Ginkgo Biloba and Long-Term Cognitive Declinewhich represents an effect size measure corresponding to the component of the change in score over the follow-up period that can be attributed to the treatment group. The statistical model controlled for the following confounding variables: age, gender, educational level (defined in two categories: no formal education and school certificate or higher), MMSE score at inclusion, depressive symptomatology measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; cut-off score of 23 for women and 17 for men) and score on a memory complaints scale at inclusion [43,44]. The association between EGb761H use and psychotropic drug consumption (antidepressants, benzodiazepines or antipsychotics) was assessed with a logistic regression model adjusted for the same confounding variables as those cited above. In order to assess the potential contribution of psychotropic drug consumption to the associations observed, the model was reiterated with additional adjustment for psychotropic drug consumption as a timedependent variable. Finally, a linear mixed effects model was applied to compare directly decline in cognitive scores between the EGb761H and piracetam treatment groups.Results SubjectsAll 3777 participants in the PAQUID cohort were eligible for this analysis, with the exception of those with a diagnosis of dementia at the time of inclusion and those who reported taking both EGb761H and piracetam at any time. The 11967625 study population consisted of 3612 subjects (95.6 of the total cohort). Of these, 589 (16.3 ) reported use of EGb761H at any time of follow-up and 149 (4.1 ) reported use of piracetam, whereas 2874 (79.6 ) did not report use of either. For the analysis of decline in each cognitive test, the analysis was restricted to those subjects for whom data were available for the cognitive tests and for all relevant confounding variables that were to be included in the multivariate analysis. The subjects available for analysis corresponded to around two-thirds of the eligible population: 2003 for the BVRT, 2057 for the IST and 2067 for the MMSE. The composition of the study sample is illustrated in Figure 1. The comparison of the characteristics of the three treatment groups at baseline is presented in Table 1. The three treatment groups did not differ in terms of age or number of medications, but significant differences were observed for all other variables. Subjects taking neither EGb761H nor piracetam tended to be more frequently men, less-educated, and to have less memory complaints than subjects taking either EGb761H or piracetam. Compared to subjects taking piracetam, subjects reporting EGb761H use were more frequently women and less frequently reported depressive symptoms or memory complaints. Baseline MMSE scores were slightly higher in the EGb761H group. At the end of follow-up, 73.3 of subjects in the EGb761H group, 86.6 in the piracetam group and 81.3 in the control group had died.of the treatment effect differed between the two treatments, subjects reporting use of EGb761H declining less rapidly than the `neither treatment’ group (p,0.0001), with a mean differ.Model offers the advantage of taking into account multiple determinations in an individual subject as well as the influence of potential confounding variables. The variable corresponding to use of EGb761H and piracetam was taken as a time-dependent variable. The output of the model was expressed as a b coefficient,Ginkgo Biloba and Long-Term Cognitive Declinewhich represents an effect size measure corresponding to the component of the change in score over the follow-up period that can be attributed to the treatment group. The statistical model controlled for the following confounding variables: age, gender, educational level (defined in two categories: no formal education and school certificate or higher), MMSE score at inclusion, depressive symptomatology measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; cut-off score of 23 for women and 17 for men) and score on a memory complaints scale at inclusion [43,44]. The association between EGb761H use and psychotropic drug consumption (antidepressants, benzodiazepines or antipsychotics) was assessed with a logistic regression model adjusted for the same confounding variables as those cited above. In order to assess the potential contribution of psychotropic drug consumption to the associations observed, the model was reiterated with additional adjustment for psychotropic drug consumption as a timedependent variable. Finally, a linear mixed effects model was applied to compare directly decline in cognitive scores between the EGb761H and piracetam treatment groups.Results SubjectsAll 3777 participants in the PAQUID cohort were eligible for this analysis, with the exception of those with a diagnosis of dementia at the time of inclusion and those who reported taking both EGb761H and piracetam at any time. The 11967625 study population consisted of 3612 subjects (95.6 of the total cohort). Of these, 589 (16.3 ) reported use of EGb761H at any time of follow-up and 149 (4.1 ) reported use of piracetam, whereas 2874 (79.6 ) did not report use of either. For the analysis of decline in each cognitive test, the analysis was restricted to those subjects for whom data were available for the cognitive tests and for all relevant confounding variables that were to be included in the multivariate analysis. The subjects available for analysis corresponded to around two-thirds of the eligible population: 2003 for the BVRT, 2057 for the IST and 2067 for the MMSE. The composition of the study sample is illustrated in Figure 1. The comparison of the characteristics of the three treatment groups at baseline is presented in Table 1. The three treatment groups did not differ in terms of age or number of medications, but significant differences were observed for all other variables. Subjects taking neither EGb761H nor piracetam tended to be more frequently men, less-educated, and to have less memory complaints than subjects taking either EGb761H or piracetam. Compared to subjects taking piracetam, subjects reporting EGb761H use were more frequently women and less frequently reported depressive symptoms or memory complaints. Baseline MMSE scores were slightly higher in the EGb761H group. At the end of follow-up, 73.3 of subjects in the EGb761H group, 86.6 in the piracetam group and 81.3 in the control group had died.of the treatment effect differed between the two treatments, subjects reporting use of EGb761H declining less rapidly than the `neither treatment’ group (p,0.0001), with a mean differ.

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