N) at 37uC, 5 CO2.Size DeterminationSize determination of isolated exosomes was

N) at 37uC, 5 CO2.Size DeterminationSize determination of isolated exosomes was performed with dynamic light scattering (DLS) using a Zetasizer Nano ZSFigure 2. Proliferation of CD3+ T cells pulsed with autologous exosomes. (A) Number of CD3+ T cells measured with automatic cell counting (Sysmex) at different time points. Cells stimulated with IL-2+exosomes are increasing in numbers. (B) Proliferation of CD3+ T cells measured with MTT assay at day five. Cells stimulated with IL-2+exosomes showed increased proliferation. (C) Distribution of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in CD3+ T cells stimulated with IL-2, autologous exosomes or IL-2+exosomes measures with flow cytometry. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049723.gProliferation of T Cells with IL2 and Exosomesflow purchase Dimethylenastron cytometry and cytokine production assays. Immediately after seeding of CD3+ T cells, wells were pulsed with exosomes resuspended in PBS to a final concentration of 47 mg/ml, 1326631 and/or 20 ng/mL of IL-2 (R D Systems, UK). All stimulations were set up in duplicates. Stimulated CD3+ T cells were incubated for eight days. Counting of cells was done at several time points using a Sysmex K21-N cell counter (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan).Cell Proliferation MeasurementThiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, MTT assay (SigmaAldrich, Sweden) was used to measure cell proliferation according to manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, cells were treated with MTT at a final concentration of 0.5 mg/ml for 3 h at 37uC, leaving the mitochondrial dehydrogenases of viable cells to cleave the tetrazolium ring. Solubilisation solution was added overnight to dissolve the MTT formazan crystals. Absorbance was measured at 570 nm at 18055761 day five. Any increase in cell number results in an increase in MTT formazan and thus in absorbance.Exosome Bead Coupling and Flow CytometryAldehyde/sulfate latex beads (4 mm, Invitrogen, Sweden) were incubated with purified anti-CD63 clone H5C6 or purified antiCD9 clone M-L13 (BD Biosciences Pharmingen, Belgium) overnight at room temperature with gentle agitation according to manufacturer’s instructions. The beads were blocked with 100 mM glycine (Sigma-Aldrich, Sweden) and washed with PBS with 3 FBS before incubation with exosomes. Exosomes were incubated with non-coated, anti-CD63 or anti-CD9 coated latex beads in 80 ml PBS for 15 min at room temperature. Volumes were made up to 400 ml and incubated 3 hrs at room temperature on a rotator. To block remaining binding sites, exosome coated beads were incubated for 30 min with 100 mM glycine (SigmaAldrich, Sweden). After two washes in PBS with 3 FBS, exosome coated beads were stained with FITC- or PE-conjugated CD81, CD9, CD63, CD3, CD4, MHC-1, MHC-II, CD25, CD86, CD80, ICAM-1 antibody or corresponding isotype control (BD Biosciences Pharmingen, Belgium). For flow cytometry analysis of stimulated CD3+ cells, the cells were harvested and washed followed by staining for cell surface markers using antibodies against CD3-PerCP clone SK7, CD4FITC clone RPA-T4 and CD8-PacificBlue clone RPA-T8 (BD Biosciences Pharmingen). All flow cytometry data were collected on a FACSCantoII (Becton, Dickinson, USA) and analyzed with FlowJo Mirin price software version 7.6.3 (Tree Star, Inc, USA).Cytokine MeasurementFigure 3. Cytokine production from autologous exosome stimulated CD3+ T cells at day zero (0 h) and day five (120 h). Relative quantification of spot intensities was performed using Quantity One software (Bio-Rad). Each bar represents an average of the intensity from.N) at 37uC, 5 CO2.Size DeterminationSize determination of isolated exosomes was performed with dynamic light scattering (DLS) using a Zetasizer Nano ZSFigure 2. Proliferation of CD3+ T cells pulsed with autologous exosomes. (A) Number of CD3+ T cells measured with automatic cell counting (Sysmex) at different time points. Cells stimulated with IL-2+exosomes are increasing in numbers. (B) Proliferation of CD3+ T cells measured with MTT assay at day five. Cells stimulated with IL-2+exosomes showed increased proliferation. (C) Distribution of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in CD3+ T cells stimulated with IL-2, autologous exosomes or IL-2+exosomes measures with flow cytometry. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049723.gProliferation of T Cells with IL2 and Exosomesflow cytometry and cytokine production assays. Immediately after seeding of CD3+ T cells, wells were pulsed with exosomes resuspended in PBS to a final concentration of 47 mg/ml, 1326631 and/or 20 ng/mL of IL-2 (R D Systems, UK). All stimulations were set up in duplicates. Stimulated CD3+ T cells were incubated for eight days. Counting of cells was done at several time points using a Sysmex K21-N cell counter (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan).Cell Proliferation MeasurementThiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, MTT assay (SigmaAldrich, Sweden) was used to measure cell proliferation according to manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, cells were treated with MTT at a final concentration of 0.5 mg/ml for 3 h at 37uC, leaving the mitochondrial dehydrogenases of viable cells to cleave the tetrazolium ring. Solubilisation solution was added overnight to dissolve the MTT formazan crystals. Absorbance was measured at 570 nm at 18055761 day five. Any increase in cell number results in an increase in MTT formazan and thus in absorbance.Exosome Bead Coupling and Flow CytometryAldehyde/sulfate latex beads (4 mm, Invitrogen, Sweden) were incubated with purified anti-CD63 clone H5C6 or purified antiCD9 clone M-L13 (BD Biosciences Pharmingen, Belgium) overnight at room temperature with gentle agitation according to manufacturer’s instructions. The beads were blocked with 100 mM glycine (Sigma-Aldrich, Sweden) and washed with PBS with 3 FBS before incubation with exosomes. Exosomes were incubated with non-coated, anti-CD63 or anti-CD9 coated latex beads in 80 ml PBS for 15 min at room temperature. Volumes were made up to 400 ml and incubated 3 hrs at room temperature on a rotator. To block remaining binding sites, exosome coated beads were incubated for 30 min with 100 mM glycine (SigmaAldrich, Sweden). After two washes in PBS with 3 FBS, exosome coated beads were stained with FITC- or PE-conjugated CD81, CD9, CD63, CD3, CD4, MHC-1, MHC-II, CD25, CD86, CD80, ICAM-1 antibody or corresponding isotype control (BD Biosciences Pharmingen, Belgium). For flow cytometry analysis of stimulated CD3+ cells, the cells were harvested and washed followed by staining for cell surface markers using antibodies against CD3-PerCP clone SK7, CD4FITC clone RPA-T4 and CD8-PacificBlue clone RPA-T8 (BD Biosciences Pharmingen). All flow cytometry data were collected on a FACSCantoII (Becton, Dickinson, USA) and analyzed with FlowJo software version 7.6.3 (Tree Star, Inc, USA).Cytokine MeasurementFigure 3. Cytokine production from autologous exosome stimulated CD3+ T cells at day zero (0 h) and day five (120 h). Relative quantification of spot intensities was performed using Quantity One software (Bio-Rad). Each bar represents an average of the intensity from.

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