Quipment as it can be performed easily in 96-well microplates, and

Quipment as it can be performed easily in 96-well microplates, and quantified using an absorbance or fluorescence plate reader. The principle underlying an enzymatic cycling assay is illustrated below (Fig. 1). This principal method was invented by Lowry et al. and subsequently modified and improved [19,20,21,22,23]. In the presence of an NAD+ dependent dehydrogenase (e.g. ADH, alcohol dehydrogenase, E.C. 1.1.1.1), NAD+ is reduced to NADH. Once formed, reduced pyridine nucleotides donate electrons to MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) in a PES (phenazine ethosulfate) coupled reaction, resulting in a purple formazan product that can be quantitatively measured at a wavelength of 570 nm. In this system, pyridine nucleotides are recycled between oxidized and reduced form, eventually passing the electron from ethanol to a redox indicator dye, hence the term `cycling assay’, or more Gracillin precisely, reactant recycling assay. When only the concentration of pyridine nucleotides is limited, the overall rate is proportional to the total amount of NAD+ and 15481974 NADH (NADx hereafter) in the reaction.Since the assay will not distinguish between reduced and oxidized pyridine nucleotides, to measure NAD+/NADH redox ratio one has to use another method to distinguish the two states. From the studies of stability of pyridine nucleotides, it has long been known that the reduced pyridine nucleotides are rapidly degraded in low pH while stable in alkali [24,25]. The oxidized form, on the other hand, is unstable in alkali but stable in acid. Increasing temperature or PO432 concentration increases the degradation rate [24]. Utilizing these instability differences of reduced and oxidized forms, two approaches were proposed to distinguish them. In one approach, sample is extracted and the extraction is aliquotted into 2 parts. One aliquot is treated at 65uC to degrade NAD+ and subsequently measured for NADH only; meanwhile the other aliquot, which is not heat treated, can be assayed for the sum of NADH and NAD+ [15,23]. In the other approach, the same sample is divided and extracted in two different solutions: the alkali extraction for NADH and the acid extraction for NAD+. Both extractions will then be adjusted to neutral pH prior to performing the recycling assay to determine the concentration of pyridine nucleotides [19,21,26]. In this study, we developed a method to extract total NADx from whole fruit flies while minimizing enzymatic degradation during sample preparation. We also modified the Madrasin biological activity existing extraction procedure so that both oxidized and reduced state can be measured from the same homogenate and NAD+/NADH ratio can be directly calculated, saving the effort of introducing an external control (e.g. protein concentration or weight) if NAD+ and NADH are extracted separately. We found this approach to be also suitable for assaying NADPH and NADP+ (NADPx hereafter) with small changes in the protocol. For the NADx assay that relies on ADH, we found a simple way to greatly improve the reaction linearity and assay sensitivity for this enzyme over a wide range. Finally, we applied this assay to Drosophila melanogasterMeasuring Redox Ratio by a Coupled Cycling AssayFigure 1. A representative scheme of a cycling assay for pyridine nucleotides. In this case, the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde catalyzed by ADH is used to assay NADx. The redox indicator is a MTT/PES coupled reaction. Acetaldehyde is removed by reacting with hydrazine in.Quipment as it can be performed easily in 96-well microplates, and quantified using an absorbance or fluorescence plate reader. The principle underlying an enzymatic cycling assay is illustrated below (Fig. 1). This principal method was invented by Lowry et al. and subsequently modified and improved [19,20,21,22,23]. In the presence of an NAD+ dependent dehydrogenase (e.g. ADH, alcohol dehydrogenase, E.C. 1.1.1.1), NAD+ is reduced to NADH. Once formed, reduced pyridine nucleotides donate electrons to MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) in a PES (phenazine ethosulfate) coupled reaction, resulting in a purple formazan product that can be quantitatively measured at a wavelength of 570 nm. In this system, pyridine nucleotides are recycled between oxidized and reduced form, eventually passing the electron from ethanol to a redox indicator dye, hence the term `cycling assay’, or more precisely, reactant recycling assay. When only the concentration of pyridine nucleotides is limited, the overall rate is proportional to the total amount of NAD+ and 15481974 NADH (NADx hereafter) in the reaction.Since the assay will not distinguish between reduced and oxidized pyridine nucleotides, to measure NAD+/NADH redox ratio one has to use another method to distinguish the two states. From the studies of stability of pyridine nucleotides, it has long been known that the reduced pyridine nucleotides are rapidly degraded in low pH while stable in alkali [24,25]. The oxidized form, on the other hand, is unstable in alkali but stable in acid. Increasing temperature or PO432 concentration increases the degradation rate [24]. Utilizing these instability differences of reduced and oxidized forms, two approaches were proposed to distinguish them. In one approach, sample is extracted and the extraction is aliquotted into 2 parts. One aliquot is treated at 65uC to degrade NAD+ and subsequently measured for NADH only; meanwhile the other aliquot, which is not heat treated, can be assayed for the sum of NADH and NAD+ [15,23]. In the other approach, the same sample is divided and extracted in two different solutions: the alkali extraction for NADH and the acid extraction for NAD+. Both extractions will then be adjusted to neutral pH prior to performing the recycling assay to determine the concentration of pyridine nucleotides [19,21,26]. In this study, we developed a method to extract total NADx from whole fruit flies while minimizing enzymatic degradation during sample preparation. We also modified the existing extraction procedure so that both oxidized and reduced state can be measured from the same homogenate and NAD+/NADH ratio can be directly calculated, saving the effort of introducing an external control (e.g. protein concentration or weight) if NAD+ and NADH are extracted separately. We found this approach to be also suitable for assaying NADPH and NADP+ (NADPx hereafter) with small changes in the protocol. For the NADx assay that relies on ADH, we found a simple way to greatly improve the reaction linearity and assay sensitivity for this enzyme over a wide range. Finally, we applied this assay to Drosophila melanogasterMeasuring Redox Ratio by a Coupled Cycling AssayFigure 1. A representative scheme of a cycling assay for pyridine nucleotides. In this case, the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde catalyzed by ADH is used to assay NADx. The redox indicator is a MTT/PES coupled reaction. Acetaldehyde is removed by reacting with hydrazine in.

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