Des and spleens were stained for lymphocyte assessment as described before

Des and spleens were stained for lymphocyte assessment as described before [12]. FACS data were acquired in CantoII flow cytometer (BD Biosciences) and analyzed using FACS Diva software (BD Biosciences).Atherosclerosis AssessmentAtherosclerotic lesions at aortic sinuses were assessed by oil redO stained lipid accumulation as described [20]. In addition to lipid accumulation, atherosclerosis was also assessed by measuring intimal atherosclerotic lesion areas using image analysis software (Optimas, South Australia, Australia) and light microscopy.Materials and Methods Ethic StatementAll experiments approved by the Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct (AMREP) Animal Ethics Committee (approved project number E/1278/2012/B) were carried out at the Precinct Animal Centre, AMREP, Prahran, Victoria, Australia.Immunohistochemical Analysis at Atherosclerotic LesionsMacrophages, the proinflammatory cytokine IL1b, CD19+ B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were assessed by immunohistochemical methods. Briefly, rabbit anti-mouse IL1b (Abcam, UK), rat anti-mouse CD68 (RE640 Serotec, Raleigh, NC), rat anti-mouse CD19 (BD Biosciences ), rat anti-mouse CD4 (BD Biosciences) and rat anti-mouse CD8 (BD Biosciences) KS-176 antibodies were used to detect IL1b, CD68+ macrophages, CD19+ B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in atherosclerotic lesions [12]. After fixing in acetone, quenching endogenous peroxidise and non-specific blocking with 10 normal horse serum, frozen sections of the aortic sinus were incubated with primary antibodies. Biotinylated goat anti-rat or anti-rabbit immunoglobulins were used in secondary antibody incubation. VECTORSTAIN elite Avidin-Biotin Complex kit (Vector laboratories) and 3,39-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) were used to generate brown coloration. After counterstaining with haematoxylin and dehydration, slides were mounted with DEPEX. Quantification of IL1b and macrophage accumulation was assessed by DAB stained area using Optimas software and expressed as total lesion area [12]. Cells stained with CD19,Anti-BAFFR Monoclonal AntibodyThe rat anti-mouse BAFFR monoclonal IgG antibody used to deplete mature B2 cells has been described previously 23727046 [19]. An intravenous injection of 0.5 mg antibody was given to deplete B2 cells and subsequent similar doses were scheduled fortnightly to maintain the depletion of mature B2 cells in ApoE2/2 C57Bl/6 mice. Rat IgG (Sigma) was used as control antibody.Animals and Experiment DesignMale 6? weeks-old C57Bl/6 mice deficient in ApoE gene were fed a high fat diet (HFD) comprised of 21 fat and 0.15 cholesterol (Specialty Feeds, Glen Forrest, Western Australia) and sterile water that were given ad libitum throughout the experiment. In the prevention study, antibody treatment was given toBAFFR-mab Treatment in Atherosclerosis ManagementFigure 1. Mature B 23388095 cell depletion in ApoE2/2 mice treated with anti-BAFFR antibody. (A) Male 6? weeks-old ApoE2/2 mice were given 0.5 mg anti-BAFFR antibody or control rat Ig fortnightly via tail vein injection while fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks. (B) CD932 CD19+ mature B2 cells identified by FACS analysis significantly decreased in spleen, with CD93+ CD19+ immature B2 cells unaffected in anti-BAFFR-antibody treated mice. (C) Representative FACS showing mature and immature B cells in spleen stained with CD93 and CD19 antibodies. Blue circle represents CD93+ CD19+ immature B cells and red circle CD932 CD19+ mature B cells (D) Confocal microscopy showing disrupted splenic B cell zones.Des and spleens were stained for lymphocyte assessment as described before [12]. FACS data were acquired in CantoII flow cytometer (BD Biosciences) and analyzed using FACS Diva software (BD Biosciences).Atherosclerosis AssessmentAtherosclerotic lesions at aortic sinuses were assessed by oil redO stained lipid accumulation as described [20]. In addition to lipid accumulation, atherosclerosis was also assessed by measuring intimal atherosclerotic lesion areas using image analysis software (Optimas, South Australia, Australia) and light microscopy.Materials and Methods Ethic StatementAll experiments approved by the Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct (AMREP) Animal Ethics Committee (approved project number E/1278/2012/B) were carried out at the Precinct Animal Centre, AMREP, Prahran, Victoria, Australia.Immunohistochemical Analysis at Atherosclerotic LesionsMacrophages, the proinflammatory cytokine IL1b, CD19+ B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were assessed by immunohistochemical methods. Briefly, rabbit anti-mouse IL1b (Abcam, UK), rat anti-mouse CD68 (Serotec, Raleigh, NC), rat anti-mouse CD19 (BD Biosciences ), rat anti-mouse CD4 (BD Biosciences) and rat anti-mouse CD8 (BD Biosciences) antibodies were used to detect IL1b, CD68+ macrophages, CD19+ B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in atherosclerotic lesions [12]. After fixing in acetone, quenching endogenous peroxidise and non-specific blocking with 10 normal horse serum, frozen sections of the aortic sinus were incubated with primary antibodies. Biotinylated goat anti-rat or anti-rabbit immunoglobulins were used in secondary antibody incubation. VECTORSTAIN elite Avidin-Biotin Complex kit (Vector laboratories) and 3,39-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) were used to generate brown coloration. After counterstaining with haematoxylin and dehydration, slides were mounted with DEPEX. Quantification of IL1b and macrophage accumulation was assessed by DAB stained area using Optimas software and expressed as total lesion area [12]. Cells stained with CD19,Anti-BAFFR Monoclonal AntibodyThe rat anti-mouse BAFFR monoclonal IgG antibody used to deplete mature B2 cells has been described previously 23727046 [19]. An intravenous injection of 0.5 mg antibody was given to deplete B2 cells and subsequent similar doses were scheduled fortnightly to maintain the depletion of mature B2 cells in ApoE2/2 C57Bl/6 mice. Rat IgG (Sigma) was used as control antibody.Animals and Experiment DesignMale 6? weeks-old C57Bl/6 mice deficient in ApoE gene were fed a high fat diet (HFD) comprised of 21 fat and 0.15 cholesterol (Specialty Feeds, Glen Forrest, Western Australia) and sterile water that were given ad libitum throughout the experiment. In the prevention study, antibody treatment was given toBAFFR-mab Treatment in Atherosclerosis ManagementFigure 1. Mature B 23388095 cell depletion in ApoE2/2 mice treated with anti-BAFFR antibody. (A) Male 6? weeks-old ApoE2/2 mice were given 0.5 mg anti-BAFFR antibody or control rat Ig fortnightly via tail vein injection while fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks. (B) CD932 CD19+ mature B2 cells identified by FACS analysis significantly decreased in spleen, with CD93+ CD19+ immature B2 cells unaffected in anti-BAFFR-antibody treated mice. (C) Representative FACS showing mature and immature B cells in spleen stained with CD93 and CD19 antibodies. Blue circle represents CD93+ CD19+ immature B cells and red circle CD932 CD19+ mature B cells (D) Confocal microscopy showing disrupted splenic B cell zones.

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