Leaflets. At ED14.5 and 17.5, Mef2c is expressed throughout theMef2c

Leaflets. At ED14.5 and 17.5, Mef2c is expressed throughout theMef2c Activates Crtl1 Transcription in Fetal Mitral VICs and NIH3T3 CellsTo demonstrate that the Mef2 binding sites identified in the Crtl1 promoter are not only able to bind to Mef2c, but that this interaction also results in the regulation of Crtl1 transcription, approximately 1 kb of the TA 02 site wildtype mouse Crtl1 promoter (2979 to +26) was cloned into a pGL3 Basic luciferase reporter vector. This Crtl1 promoter construct was transfected into chicken HH40 mitral VICs and NIH3T3 cells along with a mouse Mef2c expression construct. The luciferase activity of the Crtl1 promoter was measured and in both cell types was found to increase significantly and in a dose dependent manner (Figure 5A,C). A Mef2-Engrailed expression construct, which functions as a dominant-negative repressor of all Mef2 transcription factors [15], was also transfected into the mitral VICs in 1326631 the presence of 100 ng Mef2c. In response to Mef2-Engrailed, Crtl1 promoter activity was reduced by approximately 30 (p = 0.03) relative to the Crtl1 promoter in the presence of 100 ng of exogenous Mef2c alone,Figure 1. Sequence alignment of the mouse, rat, and human Crtl1 (Hapln1) promoters. The mouse, rat, and human Crtl1 genes, plus 1000 bp of the upstream promoter, were aligned using the web-based tool Kalign. Using this alignment, two conserved Mef2 consensus sites were identified at positions 2698 to 2707 and 2913 to 2923. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057073.gMef2c 94361-06-5 Regulates Crtl1 TranscriptionFigure 2. Crtl1, Mef2c, and Sox9 expression in the ventricular endocardium at ED10.5. Crtl1 mRNA, Crtl1 protein, and Mef2c protein expression in the ventricular endocardium at ED10.5. (A) Crtl1 mRNA (blue staining, white arrow) is synthesized by ventricular endocardial cells at ED10.5. (B) Crtl1 protein expression (green) is observed in the ventricular cardiac jelly between the endocardial and myocardial cell layers. Mef2c protein expression (red) is observed in the nuclei of both the ventricular myocardium and ventricular endocardium (white arrows indicate endocardial Mef2c expression). endo = endocardium, myo = myocardium, LV = left ventricle. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057073.gindicating that Crtl1 reporter activity has some dependence on Mef2c expression (Figure 5B). To further test the dependence of Crtl1 expression on Mef2c, each Mef2 binding site identified in the Crtl1 promoter wasmutated using the same intervening cg- mutations that were used in the DNA precipitation assay (Figure 4A). The Mef2 consensus site from 2707 to 2698 (Mef2 Site 2) was mutated from 59-ctataaataa-39 to 59-ctatagcgaa-39 (Crtl1-Mutant 2) and theFigure 3. Crtl1 and Mef2c expression in the AV junction at ED14.5 and ED17.5. (A) Atrioventricular junction in an H E stained ED14.5 specimen. (B) Immunofluorescent staining of Crtl1 (green) shows Crtl1 is expressed in the ventricular aspect of the leaflets of the mitral valve at ED14.5, Mef2c (red, panel B) is also expressed throughout the leaflets of the mitral valve. (C) Atrioventricular junction in an H E stained ED17.5 specimen. (D) Crtl1 is expressed sub-endocardially on the atrial aspects of the mitral valve leaflets at ED17.5 and Mef2c (red, panel F) is expressed in both the mesenchyme and endocardial lining of the leaflets, colocalizing with Crtl1 protein expression (green, panels D). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057073.gMef2c Regulates Crtl1 TranscriptionFigure 4. Mef2c binds to the Crtl1 Promoter i.Leaflets. At ED14.5 and 17.5, Mef2c is expressed throughout theMef2c Activates Crtl1 Transcription in Fetal Mitral VICs and NIH3T3 CellsTo demonstrate that the Mef2 binding sites identified in the Crtl1 promoter are not only able to bind to Mef2c, but that this interaction also results in the regulation of Crtl1 transcription, approximately 1 kb of the wildtype mouse Crtl1 promoter (2979 to +26) was cloned into a pGL3 Basic luciferase reporter vector. This Crtl1 promoter construct was transfected into chicken HH40 mitral VICs and NIH3T3 cells along with a mouse Mef2c expression construct. The luciferase activity of the Crtl1 promoter was measured and in both cell types was found to increase significantly and in a dose dependent manner (Figure 5A,C). A Mef2-Engrailed expression construct, which functions as a dominant-negative repressor of all Mef2 transcription factors [15], was also transfected into the mitral VICs in 1326631 the presence of 100 ng Mef2c. In response to Mef2-Engrailed, Crtl1 promoter activity was reduced by approximately 30 (p = 0.03) relative to the Crtl1 promoter in the presence of 100 ng of exogenous Mef2c alone,Figure 1. Sequence alignment of the mouse, rat, and human Crtl1 (Hapln1) promoters. The mouse, rat, and human Crtl1 genes, plus 1000 bp of the upstream promoter, were aligned using the web-based tool Kalign. Using this alignment, two conserved Mef2 consensus sites were identified at positions 2698 to 2707 and 2913 to 2923. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057073.gMef2c Regulates Crtl1 TranscriptionFigure 2. Crtl1, Mef2c, and Sox9 expression in the ventricular endocardium at ED10.5. Crtl1 mRNA, Crtl1 protein, and Mef2c protein expression in the ventricular endocardium at ED10.5. (A) Crtl1 mRNA (blue staining, white arrow) is synthesized by ventricular endocardial cells at ED10.5. (B) Crtl1 protein expression (green) is observed in the ventricular cardiac jelly between the endocardial and myocardial cell layers. Mef2c protein expression (red) is observed in the nuclei of both the ventricular myocardium and ventricular endocardium (white arrows indicate endocardial Mef2c expression). endo = endocardium, myo = myocardium, LV = left ventricle. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057073.gindicating that Crtl1 reporter activity has some dependence on Mef2c expression (Figure 5B). To further test the dependence of Crtl1 expression on Mef2c, each Mef2 binding site identified in the Crtl1 promoter wasmutated using the same intervening cg- mutations that were used in the DNA precipitation assay (Figure 4A). The Mef2 consensus site from 2707 to 2698 (Mef2 Site 2) was mutated from 59-ctataaataa-39 to 59-ctatagcgaa-39 (Crtl1-Mutant 2) and theFigure 3. Crtl1 and Mef2c expression in the AV junction at ED14.5 and ED17.5. (A) Atrioventricular junction in an H E stained ED14.5 specimen. (B) Immunofluorescent staining of Crtl1 (green) shows Crtl1 is expressed in the ventricular aspect of the leaflets of the mitral valve at ED14.5, Mef2c (red, panel B) is also expressed throughout the leaflets of the mitral valve. (C) Atrioventricular junction in an H E stained ED17.5 specimen. (D) Crtl1 is expressed sub-endocardially on the atrial aspects of the mitral valve leaflets at ED17.5 and Mef2c (red, panel F) is expressed in both the mesenchyme and endocardial lining of the leaflets, colocalizing with Crtl1 protein expression (green, panels D). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057073.gMef2c Regulates Crtl1 TranscriptionFigure 4. Mef2c binds to the Crtl1 Promoter i.

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