Gn. We selected AAV serotype 2, a vector

Gn. We selected AAV serotype 2, a vector 1516647 which does not cross the BRB and which is particularly efficient for ganglion cell transduction following intravitreal injection in mice [33]. New batches of AAV2 and AAV9 vectors were produced and injected into the tail vein of adult mice (261012 vg/mice, n = 3 mice for each serotype). One month after injection, numerous GFP expressing retinal cells were clearly detected in the 6 eyes of the scAAV9-injected mice (Figure 3). In accordance to the previous experiment, the retinal cell layer most efficiently transduced by scAAV9 was the RGC layer (Figure 3). In contrast, no GFP expression was detected in the retina of any of the 6 eyes from the scAAV2-injected mice, which confirmed that the BRB was not disrupted by the gene transfer procedure. We then investigated the nature of the GFP-positive cells in the RGC layer, by double-labeling retina sections with antibodies directed against GFP and Brn-3a, a POU Domain transcription factor specifically expressed in the Pleuromutilin nuclei of the retinal ganglion cells within the retina [34]. A large proportion of the GFP-positive cells located in the RGC layer were found to be retinal ganglion cells (Figure 4 A ). We also investigated the colocalization of GFP and Chx10, a transcription factor specifically expressed in the nucleus of bipolar cells [35]. This analysis identified the GFPpositive cells located in the INL as bipolar cells (Figure 4 D ). It is noteworthy that only a negligible number of ganglion cell were visible on the latter sections taken from the central part of the retina (as denoted by the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL]). At this level of the retina the number of transducedRGC is low and not representative of the whole retina. We quantified the efficiency of gene transfer to the retinal ganglion cells of the RGC layer (the most efficiently transduced retina layer), by determining the number of GFP-positive cells, the number of Brn-3a-positive cells, and the number of cells expressing both markers, on transverse sections of the retina at the level of the optic nerve (n = 6, one eye per mouse). We found that 222620 cells per retinal section expressed GFP in the RGC layer, and that 12269 of these cells also expressed Brn-3a. The Brn-3a-positive cell population was estimated at 271614 cells per retinal section. Thus, almost 45 of the Brn-3a-positive retinalSystemic scAAV9 Gene Transfer to the RetinaFigure 2. GFP expression in the optic nerve and the 15755315 ciliary body of intravenous scAAV9-GFP injected adult mice. Representative cross sections of the optic nerve (A) and the ciliary body (B) treated for GFP immunofluorescence (green) and stained with DAPI (blue), four weeks after the injection of 261012 vg of scAAV9-GFP into the tail veins of eight-week-old mice. In (A), the boundaries of the retinal nerve fiber layer (originating from the RGC) are clearly demarcated by their Iloprost web pattern of GFP expression (arrowheads) (arrows: GFP-positive axons in the optic nerve). (B) High magnification of the ciliary body, showing strong GFP expression in the epithelial cells. ON: optic nerve; RET: retina; TM: trabecular meshwork. Scale bar: 100 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061618.gganglion cells in the RGC layer were efficiently transduced after the intravenous delivery of scAAV9-GFP in adult mice.DiscussionRecombinant scAAV9 is currently considered to be one of the most promising vectors for human gene therapy because this serotype transduces the cells of.Gn. We selected AAV serotype 2, a vector 1516647 which does not cross the BRB and which is particularly efficient for ganglion cell transduction following intravitreal injection in mice [33]. New batches of AAV2 and AAV9 vectors were produced and injected into the tail vein of adult mice (261012 vg/mice, n = 3 mice for each serotype). One month after injection, numerous GFP expressing retinal cells were clearly detected in the 6 eyes of the scAAV9-injected mice (Figure 3). In accordance to the previous experiment, the retinal cell layer most efficiently transduced by scAAV9 was the RGC layer (Figure 3). In contrast, no GFP expression was detected in the retina of any of the 6 eyes from the scAAV2-injected mice, which confirmed that the BRB was not disrupted by the gene transfer procedure. We then investigated the nature of the GFP-positive cells in the RGC layer, by double-labeling retina sections with antibodies directed against GFP and Brn-3a, a POU Domain transcription factor specifically expressed in the nuclei of the retinal ganglion cells within the retina [34]. A large proportion of the GFP-positive cells located in the RGC layer were found to be retinal ganglion cells (Figure 4 A ). We also investigated the colocalization of GFP and Chx10, a transcription factor specifically expressed in the nucleus of bipolar cells [35]. This analysis identified the GFPpositive cells located in the INL as bipolar cells (Figure 4 D ). It is noteworthy that only a negligible number of ganglion cell were visible on the latter sections taken from the central part of the retina (as denoted by the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL]). At this level of the retina the number of transducedRGC is low and not representative of the whole retina. We quantified the efficiency of gene transfer to the retinal ganglion cells of the RGC layer (the most efficiently transduced retina layer), by determining the number of GFP-positive cells, the number of Brn-3a-positive cells, and the number of cells expressing both markers, on transverse sections of the retina at the level of the optic nerve (n = 6, one eye per mouse). We found that 222620 cells per retinal section expressed GFP in the RGC layer, and that 12269 of these cells also expressed Brn-3a. The Brn-3a-positive cell population was estimated at 271614 cells per retinal section. Thus, almost 45 of the Brn-3a-positive retinalSystemic scAAV9 Gene Transfer to the RetinaFigure 2. GFP expression in the optic nerve and the 15755315 ciliary body of intravenous scAAV9-GFP injected adult mice. Representative cross sections of the optic nerve (A) and the ciliary body (B) treated for GFP immunofluorescence (green) and stained with DAPI (blue), four weeks after the injection of 261012 vg of scAAV9-GFP into the tail veins of eight-week-old mice. In (A), the boundaries of the retinal nerve fiber layer (originating from the RGC) are clearly demarcated by their pattern of GFP expression (arrowheads) (arrows: GFP-positive axons in the optic nerve). (B) High magnification of the ciliary body, showing strong GFP expression in the epithelial cells. ON: optic nerve; RET: retina; TM: trabecular meshwork. Scale bar: 100 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061618.gganglion cells in the RGC layer were efficiently transduced after the intravenous delivery of scAAV9-GFP in adult mice.DiscussionRecombinant scAAV9 is currently considered to be one of the most promising vectors for human gene therapy because this serotype transduces the cells of.

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