Ting Information file, Figure S3). To confirm these data we also

Ting InMedChemExpress 58-49-1 formation file, Figure S3). To confirm these data we also analyzed endothelial spheroid sprouting in the presence and Madecassoside site absence of 5ML. In this assay 5ML induced a significant increase in spheroid sprouting (Figure 1C and 1D). As the next step the angiogenesis-promoting activity of 5ML was measured in an in vivo chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. The data in Figure 2 show that 5ML led to a significant increase in capillary density in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (Figure 2A and 2B).5ML stimulates angiogenesis by increasing the expression of CYP26BIn order to reveal genes that might be involved in 5ML-induced angiogenesis we performed microarray-based expression analyses of HUVECs in the presence or absence of 10 mM 5ML for 6 and 24 hours. Figure 3A and 3B show that cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is the most highly upregulated gene and that thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) is the most downregulated gene after 6 and 24 hours of exposure to 10 mM 5ML. Based on these results we performed functional analyses by 5ML treatment of CYP1A1 knock down (siRNA-mediated) and TXNIP over-expressing (lentivirus mediated) HUVECs followed by capillary tube formation assays. Interestingly, CYP1A1 knock down had a dramatic effect on spontaneous (i.e. 5ML independent) tube formation (see Figure 3C), however, like TXNIP overexpression (which had no effect on spontaneous tube formation-see Figure S1 in the Supporting Information file), no significant effect on 5ML-induced increase in tube formation was observed. Therefore we expanded the knock down and over-expression approach to other genes found to be regulated by 5ML. As shown in Figure 3C, siRNA mediated knock down of CYP26B1 totally abrogated 5ML-mediated increase in capillary tube formation. Western blot based analysis were performed to verify the knock down of CYP1A1 and CYP26B1 protein expression (Figure 3D; ponceau staining served as loading control).Figure 2. Effects of 5ML on blood vessel formation in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) assay. Figure 2A: CAMs of 3-days- old chickens were incubated for 96 hours with the control solution (DMSO as the solvent control) or 0.1 or 0.5 mg 5ML. Figure 2A shows that the treatment with 5ML enhanced the formation of new blood vessels. 5ML significantly increased blood vessel formation at a concentration of 0.5 m g/egg. Figure 2B shows representative images of the CAM-assay (Magnification: 12,56). Blood vessels were counted in the ring area of the CAM to quantify effects of 5ML in vivo. All experiments were performed in triplicates. Asterisks indicate significant differences (* p,0.05) compared to the corresponding controls. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058342.gEdelweiss for the HeartFigure 3. 5ML alters the transcription of a small set of genes; CYP26B1 is the causal mediator of 5ML -induced angiogenesis. Figures 3A and 3B show median values +/2 S.D. of microarray-based analyses of gene-regulation by 5ML in relation to controls 6 and 24 hours after the addition of 5ML (10 mM). Figure 3C shows that despite the fact that the knockdown of CYP1A1 had a significant inhibitory effect on spontaneous angiogenesis in HUVECs; CYP1A1 knockdown had no effect on angiogenesis increased by 5ML. Similarly, CYP26B1 knockdown potently repressed spontaneous angiogenesis in HUVECS and in addition completely abrogated 5ML-induced tube formation. Shown are mean values of two independent experiments performed in triplicates +/2 SD. * p,0.05. Figure 3D.Ting Information file, Figure S3). To confirm these data we also analyzed endothelial spheroid sprouting in the presence and absence of 5ML. In this assay 5ML induced a significant increase in spheroid sprouting (Figure 1C and 1D). As the next step the angiogenesis-promoting activity of 5ML was measured in an in vivo chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. The data in Figure 2 show that 5ML led to a significant increase in capillary density in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (Figure 2A and 2B).5ML stimulates angiogenesis by increasing the expression of CYP26BIn order to reveal genes that might be involved in 5ML-induced angiogenesis we performed microarray-based expression analyses of HUVECs in the presence or absence of 10 mM 5ML for 6 and 24 hours. Figure 3A and 3B show that cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is the most highly upregulated gene and that thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) is the most downregulated gene after 6 and 24 hours of exposure to 10 mM 5ML. Based on these results we performed functional analyses by 5ML treatment of CYP1A1 knock down (siRNA-mediated) and TXNIP over-expressing (lentivirus mediated) HUVECs followed by capillary tube formation assays. Interestingly, CYP1A1 knock down had a dramatic effect on spontaneous (i.e. 5ML independent) tube formation (see Figure 3C), however, like TXNIP overexpression (which had no effect on spontaneous tube formation-see Figure S1 in the Supporting Information file), no significant effect on 5ML-induced increase in tube formation was observed. Therefore we expanded the knock down and over-expression approach to other genes found to be regulated by 5ML. As shown in Figure 3C, siRNA mediated knock down of CYP26B1 totally abrogated 5ML-mediated increase in capillary tube formation. Western blot based analysis were performed to verify the knock down of CYP1A1 and CYP26B1 protein expression (Figure 3D; ponceau staining served as loading control).Figure 2. Effects of 5ML on blood vessel formation in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) assay. Figure 2A: CAMs of 3-days- old chickens were incubated for 96 hours with the control solution (DMSO as the solvent control) or 0.1 or 0.5 mg 5ML. Figure 2A shows that the treatment with 5ML enhanced the formation of new blood vessels. 5ML significantly increased blood vessel formation at a concentration of 0.5 m g/egg. Figure 2B shows representative images of the CAM-assay (Magnification: 12,56). Blood vessels were counted in the ring area of the CAM to quantify effects of 5ML in vivo. All experiments were performed in triplicates. Asterisks indicate significant differences (* p,0.05) compared to the corresponding controls. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058342.gEdelweiss for the HeartFigure 3. 5ML alters the transcription of a small set of genes; CYP26B1 is the causal mediator of 5ML -induced angiogenesis. Figures 3A and 3B show median values +/2 S.D. of microarray-based analyses of gene-regulation by 5ML in relation to controls 6 and 24 hours after the addition of 5ML (10 mM). Figure 3C shows that despite the fact that the knockdown of CYP1A1 had a significant inhibitory effect on spontaneous angiogenesis in HUVECs; CYP1A1 knockdown had no effect on angiogenesis increased by 5ML. Similarly, CYP26B1 knockdown potently repressed spontaneous angiogenesis in HUVECS and in addition completely abrogated 5ML-induced tube formation. Shown are mean values of two independent experiments performed in triplicates +/2 SD. * p,0.05. Figure 3D.

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