Tible level. In this particular case we substituted glutamate rather than

Tible level. In this particular case we substituted glutamate rather than aspartate and this may account for the differing oligomerization behavior. However, IlyA428D, compared to the homologous Ply mutant PlyA370E, behaved in a similar manner where neither mutant was able to oligomerize, and likewise the same might be said for IlyA464D and PlyA406E [33]. The oligomerization deficiency caused by PlyA370E and PlyL460E indicates that these amino acids must be within the lipid membrane environment in order for oligomerization to occur on the HCEC surface. They likely function in a stabilizing role, since mutation of both of these residues to glycine did not prevent oligomerization. Therefore, the R-groups of A370 and L460 are not likely involved in specific molecular interactions that are required for the oligomerization of Ply on HCECs. The reduction in oligomerization efficiency may be due to destabilization caused by the presence of glycine rather than the native residues. We then questioned where on the HCEC surface Ply was localizing and if there was any difference between PlyWT and the loop mutants. Previous research investigating both Pfo and listeriolysin (Llo) have shown that they preferentially MedChemExpress 114311-32-9 localized to lipid raft microdomains on the surface of human lymphoblastic cells (MOLT-4) and mouse macrophage (J774 cells) respectively [48,49]. Specifically, Llo has been shown to cause lipid raft markers, including ganglioside GM1, to aggregate on the surface of J774 macrophages [48]. The same study by Gekara et al. discovered that lipid raft aggregation by Llo can be blocked if the toxin is pretreated with a monoclonal antibody that blocks oligomerization, but not cholesterol recognition. Therefore they proposed that oligomerization of Llo is responsible 10457188 for lipid raft aggregation and may facilitate other cellular functions such as endocytosis or the initiation of intracellular signaling. Very little is known regarding Ply and whether it interacts with lipid raft microdomains on the HCEC surface. We performed sucrose density gradient centrifugations of HCEC membranes in order to separate the lipid rafts from the surrounding bilayer, after labeling the cells with CTxb and Ply. We observed that both PlyWT and CTxb were detectable in both the low (raft) and high (non-raft) density fractions. Interestingly, all of the mutant Ply molecules were only detectable in the high density fractions except for PlyA370G, the only fully lytic mutant. 1662274 The fact that the majority of the mutant Ply molecules were only detectable in the high density fractions indicates that Madrasin price although initial binding is not affected, the loop mutations do influence the ability of the molecules to localizePneumolysin Binds to Lipid Rafts of Corneal Cellsto lipid raft microdomains on the HCEC surface. The nature of this disruption is still not fully understood. The fact that only the fully active Ply variants (PlyWT and PlyA370G) were detected in the raft fractions indicates that either full oligomerization capability is necessary or the ability to convert the prepore to mature pore is required for the raft colocalization to occur. Of the Ply mutants that were found to be oligomerization capable (PlyA370G, PlyA406G, PlyA406E, PlyW433F, and PlyL460G), PlyA370G is the only mutant that is as efficient as PlyWT at oligomer formation and was also the only mutant that localized to the raft fractions of the sucrose gradient. Perhaps the diminished capacity to oligomerize results in an.Tible level. In this particular case we substituted glutamate rather than aspartate and this may account for the differing oligomerization behavior. However, IlyA428D, compared to the homologous Ply mutant PlyA370E, behaved in a similar manner where neither mutant was able to oligomerize, and likewise the same might be said for IlyA464D and PlyA406E [33]. The oligomerization deficiency caused by PlyA370E and PlyL460E indicates that these amino acids must be within the lipid membrane environment in order for oligomerization to occur on the HCEC surface. They likely function in a stabilizing role, since mutation of both of these residues to glycine did not prevent oligomerization. Therefore, the R-groups of A370 and L460 are not likely involved in specific molecular interactions that are required for the oligomerization of Ply on HCECs. The reduction in oligomerization efficiency may be due to destabilization caused by the presence of glycine rather than the native residues. We then questioned where on the HCEC surface Ply was localizing and if there was any difference between PlyWT and the loop mutants. Previous research investigating both Pfo and listeriolysin (Llo) have shown that they preferentially localized to lipid raft microdomains on the surface of human lymphoblastic cells (MOLT-4) and mouse macrophage (J774 cells) respectively [48,49]. Specifically, Llo has been shown to cause lipid raft markers, including ganglioside GM1, to aggregate on the surface of J774 macrophages [48]. The same study by Gekara et al. discovered that lipid raft aggregation by Llo can be blocked if the toxin is pretreated with a monoclonal antibody that blocks oligomerization, but not cholesterol recognition. Therefore they proposed that oligomerization of Llo is responsible 10457188 for lipid raft aggregation and may facilitate other cellular functions such as endocytosis or the initiation of intracellular signaling. Very little is known regarding Ply and whether it interacts with lipid raft microdomains on the HCEC surface. We performed sucrose density gradient centrifugations of HCEC membranes in order to separate the lipid rafts from the surrounding bilayer, after labeling the cells with CTxb and Ply. We observed that both PlyWT and CTxb were detectable in both the low (raft) and high (non-raft) density fractions. Interestingly, all of the mutant Ply molecules were only detectable in the high density fractions except for PlyA370G, the only fully lytic mutant. 1662274 The fact that the majority of the mutant Ply molecules were only detectable in the high density fractions indicates that although initial binding is not affected, the loop mutations do influence the ability of the molecules to localizePneumolysin Binds to Lipid Rafts of Corneal Cellsto lipid raft microdomains on the HCEC surface. The nature of this disruption is still not fully understood. The fact that only the fully active Ply variants (PlyWT and PlyA370G) were detected in the raft fractions indicates that either full oligomerization capability is necessary or the ability to convert the prepore to mature pore is required for the raft colocalization to occur. Of the Ply mutants that were found to be oligomerization capable (PlyA370G, PlyA406G, PlyA406E, PlyW433F, and PlyL460G), PlyA370G is the only mutant that is as efficient as PlyWT at oligomer formation and was also the only mutant that localized to the raft fractions of the sucrose gradient. Perhaps the diminished capacity to oligomerize results in an.

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