The control was GACCA (35.2 ), and it was therefore chosen as a

The control was GACCA (35.2 ), and it was therefore chosen as a reference. Compared to the reference, two VEGF-C haplotypes, GGACA and GACTG, significantly (p,0.001) increased the risks for OSCC by 1.568- (95 CI: 1.201,2.046) and 1.819-fold (95 CI: 1.352,2.448), respectively (Table 5). To clarify the role of VEGF-C gene buy Anlotinib polymorphisms in the oralcancer clinicopathologic status, such as TNM clinical staging, primary tumor size, lymph-node involvement, and histologic grade, the distribution frequency of the clinical status and VEGF-C genotype frequencies in oral-cancer patients were estimated. No significant association between rs7664413 gene polymorphisms and the clinicopathologic status were observed (Table 6).DiscussionAlcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, and betel-quid chewing are the main known etiologic factors for oral cancer. In this study, higher ratios were observed of individuals who had chewed betel quid and consumed alcohol and tobacco in the group of OSCC patients (78.9 , 62.8 , and 87.0 , respectively) than control subjects (21.1 , 43.4 , and 47.4 , respectively), which indicates that alcohol and tobacco consumption and betel-quid chewing arehighly associated with increased risks of oral cancer. It is well documented that long-term tobacco and betel-quid consumption contributes to oral cancer [3,4]. Betel-quid constituents might increase protein levels of the c-Fos and c-Jun LED-209 web proto-oncogenes [37]. Tobacco consumption also significantly increases expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 [38] and VEGF-C [39] in oral and cervical cancers, respectively. Exposure to environmental carcinogen might partially involve the formation or pathogenesis of oral cancer, but increasing evidence indicates that genomic changes progressively alter cellular phenotypes and might more significantly lead cells to evolve from the preneoplastic stage into cancer [40]. It was reported that the oral mucosa of individuals with the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) SNP 309 GG genotype is more susceptible to environmental carcinogen exposure and results in earlier onset of tumor formation [41]. A longer allelic polymorphism of the GT dinucleotide in the heme oxygenase (HO)-1 promoter and a functional polymorphism in the nuclear factor kappa B1 (NFKB1) promoter are both related to the risk of betel-quidrelated OSCC [42,43]. Polymorphisms of several genes were identified as being associated with the risk of oral cancer [44,45]. It is clear that genetic 1662274 components may 15755315 play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. VEGF-C is frequently identified in tumor tissues within head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and the broad expression ofVEGF-C Gene Polymorphisms in Oral CancerTable 3. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95 confidence intervals (CIs) of associations of VEGF-C genotypic frequencies and betel-nut chewing among 611 smokers with male oral cancer.Variable rsa b cControls (n = 202) ( )Patients (n = 409) ( )OR (95 CI)AOR (95 CI)GG genotype without betel-nut chewing GC or CC genotype or betel-nut chewing GC or CC genotype with betel-nut chewing90 (44.6 ) 86 (42.6 ) 26 (12.9 )41 (10.1 ) 284 (69.4 ) 84 (20.5 )1.00 7.249 (4.663,11.268) 7.092 (3.993,12.595)1.00 11.688 (6.534,20.907) 14.501 (6.899,30.479)rsa b cAA genotype without betel-nut chewing AG or GG genotype or betel-nut chewing AG or GG genotype with betel-nut chewing50 (24.8 ) 119 (58.9 ) 33 (16.3 )32 (7.8 ) 156 (38.2 ) 221 (54.0 )1.00 2.048 (1.238,3.390) 10.464 (5.888,18.597)1.00 2.827 (1.491,5.360) 1.The control was GACCA (35.2 ), and it was therefore chosen as a reference. Compared to the reference, two VEGF-C haplotypes, GGACA and GACTG, significantly (p,0.001) increased the risks for OSCC by 1.568- (95 CI: 1.201,2.046) and 1.819-fold (95 CI: 1.352,2.448), respectively (Table 5). To clarify the role of VEGF-C gene polymorphisms in the oralcancer clinicopathologic status, such as TNM clinical staging, primary tumor size, lymph-node involvement, and histologic grade, the distribution frequency of the clinical status and VEGF-C genotype frequencies in oral-cancer patients were estimated. No significant association between rs7664413 gene polymorphisms and the clinicopathologic status were observed (Table 6).DiscussionAlcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, and betel-quid chewing are the main known etiologic factors for oral cancer. In this study, higher ratios were observed of individuals who had chewed betel quid and consumed alcohol and tobacco in the group of OSCC patients (78.9 , 62.8 , and 87.0 , respectively) than control subjects (21.1 , 43.4 , and 47.4 , respectively), which indicates that alcohol and tobacco consumption and betel-quid chewing arehighly associated with increased risks of oral cancer. It is well documented that long-term tobacco and betel-quid consumption contributes to oral cancer [3,4]. Betel-quid constituents might increase protein levels of the c-Fos and c-Jun proto-oncogenes [37]. Tobacco consumption also significantly increases expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 [38] and VEGF-C [39] in oral and cervical cancers, respectively. Exposure to environmental carcinogen might partially involve the formation or pathogenesis of oral cancer, but increasing evidence indicates that genomic changes progressively alter cellular phenotypes and might more significantly lead cells to evolve from the preneoplastic stage into cancer [40]. It was reported that the oral mucosa of individuals with the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) SNP 309 GG genotype is more susceptible to environmental carcinogen exposure and results in earlier onset of tumor formation [41]. A longer allelic polymorphism of the GT dinucleotide in the heme oxygenase (HO)-1 promoter and a functional polymorphism in the nuclear factor kappa B1 (NFKB1) promoter are both related to the risk of betel-quidrelated OSCC [42,43]. Polymorphisms of several genes were identified as being associated with the risk of oral cancer [44,45]. It is clear that genetic 1662274 components may 15755315 play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. VEGF-C is frequently identified in tumor tissues within head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and the broad expression ofVEGF-C Gene Polymorphisms in Oral CancerTable 3. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95 confidence intervals (CIs) of associations of VEGF-C genotypic frequencies and betel-nut chewing among 611 smokers with male oral cancer.Variable rsa b cControls (n = 202) ( )Patients (n = 409) ( )OR (95 CI)AOR (95 CI)GG genotype without betel-nut chewing GC or CC genotype or betel-nut chewing GC or CC genotype with betel-nut chewing90 (44.6 ) 86 (42.6 ) 26 (12.9 )41 (10.1 ) 284 (69.4 ) 84 (20.5 )1.00 7.249 (4.663,11.268) 7.092 (3.993,12.595)1.00 11.688 (6.534,20.907) 14.501 (6.899,30.479)rsa b cAA genotype without betel-nut chewing AG or GG genotype or betel-nut chewing AG or GG genotype with betel-nut chewing50 (24.8 ) 119 (58.9 ) 33 (16.3 )32 (7.8 ) 156 (38.2 ) 221 (54.0 )1.00 2.048 (1.238,3.390) 10.464 (5.888,18.597)1.00 2.827 (1.491,5.360) 1.

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