Ages were taken with a Leica TCS SP2 confocal laser scanning

Ages were taken with a Leica TCS SP2 confocal laser scanning microscope equipped with a 6361.4 NA objective.Immunoblot AnalysisFor whole cell lysates immunobloting experiments, cells were harvested, washed, lysed in buffer containing 50 mM Tris pH 7.5, 20 mM Na PPi, 20 mM NaHSO3, 5 mM EGTA, 5 mM EDTA, 1 mM PMSF, 16 Protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche), 0.5 Triton-X100 and mixed with an equal amount of boiling 26 SDS loading buffer. To analyse specific processing of NTS-EYFP, GFP immunoblot of isolated mitochondria was performed. Mitochondria were prepared as described [40] from AX2 cells overproducing NTS-EYFP and equal amount of boiling 26 SDS loading buffer was added. Samples were run on 15 SDS-PAGE and transferred to nitrocellulose membrane (Whatman). Membranes were blocked with PBS/ 0.05 Tween 20 containing 5 powdered skim milk, followed by incubation with mouse anti-GFP 23727046 antibody (Roche). A horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody (Thermo Scientific) was used for detection. Following development using the SuperSignal West Dura Substrate (Thermo Scientific) images were taken with a GelDoc system (Bio Rad).Fluorescence MicroscopyD. discoideum AX2 cells were grown on glass bottom plates (MatTek Corp) to 30?0 confluency. For epi-fluorescence imaging, cells were washed twice with 10 mM MES-NaOH pH 6.5, 2 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM CaCl2 and kept in the buffer at 21uC. Images were taken at 512 nm with an Olympus 1681 inverted microscope equipped with a 10061.45 NA objective and a Hamamatsu C10600 ORCA R2 CCD camera. For confocal microscopy, samples were prepared as described previously [39], except that they were permeabilized for 2 min with 70 ethanolProtease Accessibility AssayMitochondria from transiently transfected HEK293T cells overproducing NTS-EGFP were prepared using the mitochondria isolation kit (Thermo Scientific). Purified mitochondria were incubated on ice for 10, 20, and 30 min in the presence or absence of up to 0.1 mg/ml trypsin. Reactions were stopped by the addition of 10 mM PMSF and SDS-sample buffer and heated at 90uC for 10 min; equal amounts of protein were separated byDictyostelium Mitochondrial Targeting SequenceFigure 4. Positive charge clusters are essential for mitochondrial targeting. (A) Helical wheel projection of residues 28?4. Vasopressin chemical information Positively charged amino acid residues are shown in blue, negatively charged residues in red, Bexagliflozin biological activity serine and threonine in green and hydrophobic residues in yellow. (B) Localization of NTS DI2 mutants, NTS DI2 2A, NTS DI2 5A, NTS DI2 7A, NTS DI2 38A 40A and NTS DI2 29A 61A. Diffuse staining indicates cytoplasmic distribution and granular staining mitochondrial targeting. Scale bars, 10 mm. (C) Immuno-blot loaded with D. discoideumDictyostelium Mitochondrial Targeting Sequencewhole cell lysate from untransformed cells (AX2) and cells producing EYFP-tagged NTS DI2, NTS DI2 2A, NTS DI2 5A, NTS DI2 7A, NTS DI2 38A?K40A, and NTS DI2 29A 61A. Mitochondrial targeted NTS DI2 2A and NTS DI2 38A 40A undergo processing, while NTS DI2 5A, NTS DI2?K7A and NTS DI2 29A 61A run as un-processed proteins. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056975.gSDS AGE and analyzed by immuno-blotting on nitrocellulose membranes. Monoclonal mouse anti-GFP (Roche), mouse anti-CytC (Mitoscience), rabbit anti-Tom20 (Santa Cruz) were used, Mitochondrial Hsp60 was detected using rabbit polyclonal GroEL antibody (Sigma Aldrich). To show that the processed NTS-EGFP construct is sensitive to proteolytic degradation, we performed a.Ages were taken with a Leica TCS SP2 confocal laser scanning microscope equipped with a 6361.4 NA objective.Immunoblot AnalysisFor whole cell lysates immunobloting experiments, cells were harvested, washed, lysed in buffer containing 50 mM Tris pH 7.5, 20 mM Na PPi, 20 mM NaHSO3, 5 mM EGTA, 5 mM EDTA, 1 mM PMSF, 16 Protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche), 0.5 Triton-X100 and mixed with an equal amount of boiling 26 SDS loading buffer. To analyse specific processing of NTS-EYFP, GFP immunoblot of isolated mitochondria was performed. Mitochondria were prepared as described [40] from AX2 cells overproducing NTS-EYFP and equal amount of boiling 26 SDS loading buffer was added. Samples were run on 15 SDS-PAGE and transferred to nitrocellulose membrane (Whatman). Membranes were blocked with PBS/ 0.05 Tween 20 containing 5 powdered skim milk, followed by incubation with mouse anti-GFP 23727046 antibody (Roche). A horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody (Thermo Scientific) was used for detection. Following development using the SuperSignal West Dura Substrate (Thermo Scientific) images were taken with a GelDoc system (Bio Rad).Fluorescence MicroscopyD. discoideum AX2 cells were grown on glass bottom plates (MatTek Corp) to 30?0 confluency. For epi-fluorescence imaging, cells were washed twice with 10 mM MES-NaOH pH 6.5, 2 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM CaCl2 and kept in the buffer at 21uC. Images were taken at 512 nm with an Olympus 1681 inverted microscope equipped with a 10061.45 NA objective and a Hamamatsu C10600 ORCA R2 CCD camera. For confocal microscopy, samples were prepared as described previously [39], except that they were permeabilized for 2 min with 70 ethanolProtease Accessibility AssayMitochondria from transiently transfected HEK293T cells overproducing NTS-EGFP were prepared using the mitochondria isolation kit (Thermo Scientific). Purified mitochondria were incubated on ice for 10, 20, and 30 min in the presence or absence of up to 0.1 mg/ml trypsin. Reactions were stopped by the addition of 10 mM PMSF and SDS-sample buffer and heated at 90uC for 10 min; equal amounts of protein were separated byDictyostelium Mitochondrial Targeting SequenceFigure 4. Positive charge clusters are essential for mitochondrial targeting. (A) Helical wheel projection of residues 28?4. Positively charged amino acid residues are shown in blue, negatively charged residues in red, serine and threonine in green and hydrophobic residues in yellow. (B) Localization of NTS DI2 mutants, NTS DI2 2A, NTS DI2 5A, NTS DI2 7A, NTS DI2 38A 40A and NTS DI2 29A 61A. Diffuse staining indicates cytoplasmic distribution and granular staining mitochondrial targeting. Scale bars, 10 mm. (C) Immuno-blot loaded with D. discoideumDictyostelium Mitochondrial Targeting Sequencewhole cell lysate from untransformed cells (AX2) and cells producing EYFP-tagged NTS DI2, NTS DI2 2A, NTS DI2 5A, NTS DI2 7A, NTS DI2 38A?K40A, and NTS DI2 29A 61A. Mitochondrial targeted NTS DI2 2A and NTS DI2 38A 40A undergo processing, while NTS DI2 5A, NTS DI2?K7A and NTS DI2 29A 61A run as un-processed proteins. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056975.gSDS AGE and analyzed by immuno-blotting on nitrocellulose membranes. Monoclonal mouse anti-GFP (Roche), mouse anti-CytC (Mitoscience), rabbit anti-Tom20 (Santa Cruz) were used, Mitochondrial Hsp60 was detected using rabbit polyclonal GroEL antibody (Sigma Aldrich). To show that the processed NTS-EGFP construct is sensitive to proteolytic degradation, we performed a.

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