Chitosan significantly enhanced antibody titres up to 10 fold (p = 0.016 and 0.03 respectively

Chitosan significantly enhanced antibody titres up to 10 fold (p = 0.016 and 0.03 respectively) (Figure 6A). Conversely, specific serum IgA responses were barely above background in the antigen-alone group and none of the adjuvants increased specific IgA titres. A similar pattern was observed in vaginal wash samples, with detectable IgG titres and very poor or no specific IgA responses. FSL-1, poly I:C and Pam3CSK4 significantly increased mucosal IgG titres giving titres up to 4.26102 (p,0.01) (Fig. 6C). IgG subclass analysis of sera, indicated that gp140 alone induced a very high average IgG1/IgG2a ratio of 1531364 above 50 (Figure S3A) that was similar to responses induced in the presence of chitosan. In contrast 23115181 all the TLR adjuvant candidates significantlyVaginal immunisation with gp140 and TTVaginal administration of CN54gp140 failed to induce detectable Title Loaded From File systemic or vaginal IgG and IgA responses. Likewise, none of the candidate adjuvants tested induced specific systemic antibody titres following vaginal immunisation. Lack of local vaginalFigure 4. Intranasal immunisation with Tetanus toxoid. Endpoint titres for IgG (A, C) and IgA (B, D) in sera (upper panels) and vaginal washes (lower panels) from animals immunised three times with Tetanus toxoid intranasally. Asterisks indicate significant differences between the different adjuvant/antigen Title Loaded From File groups and the PBS control group. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050529.gMucosal TLR Adjuvants for HIV-gpFigure 5. Intravaginal immunisation with Tetanus toxoid. Endpoint titres for IgG (A, C) and IgA (B, D) in sera (upper panels) and vaginal washes (lower panels) from animals immunised three times with Tetanus toxoid intravaginally. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050529.gFigure 6. Subcutaneous immunisation with gp140. Endpoint titres for IgG (A, C) and IgA (B, D) in sera (upper panels) and vaginal washes (lower panels) from animals immunised three times with gp140 subcutaneously. Asterisks indicate significant differences between the different adjuvant/ antigen groups and the PBS control group. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050529.gMucosal TLR Adjuvants for HIV-gpreduced this ratio providing a more balanced response, most evident with MPLA. When TT was given subcutaneously, the antigen alone induced very high IgG responses systemically that were enhanced by FSL1, poly I:C, MPLA, and Pam3CSK4 (p,0.01) up to 5.6 fold (Figure 7A). Systemic IgA responses to TT alone were at or below the cut-off for detection (Fig. 7B). Poly I:C and chitosan induced significant TT specific IgA titres (p,0.01) although modest in comparison to other routes of immunisation. In vaginal wash samples, detectable IgG titres were observed, with no significant differences between groups. Specific IgA responses to TT alone were very low but increased by FSL-1, politic, Pam3CSK4 (p,0.01) and MPLA (p = 0.04) (Figure 7C and D). IgG subclass analysis showed that TT given alone induced a very high IgG1/IgG2a ratio, above 50 (Figure S3B). This was significantly reduced by co-administration of TLR agonists: FSL1, MPLA, Pam3CSK4, R848 and CpG B.DiscussionIn the present study, we investigate the impact of a range of TLR ligands as potential adjuvants for different routes of mucosal immunisation and their ability to enhance specific antibody responses to gp140 and TT in systemic and vaginal compartments. In addition we characterize the different impact of TLR adjuvants by route of administration on the balance of Th1/Th2 type humoral immune responses. Subl.Chitosan significantly enhanced antibody titres up to 10 fold (p = 0.016 and 0.03 respectively) (Figure 6A). Conversely, specific serum IgA responses were barely above background in the antigen-alone group and none of the adjuvants increased specific IgA titres. A similar pattern was observed in vaginal wash samples, with detectable IgG titres and very poor or no specific IgA responses. FSL-1, poly I:C and Pam3CSK4 significantly increased mucosal IgG titres giving titres up to 4.26102 (p,0.01) (Fig. 6C). IgG subclass analysis of sera, indicated that gp140 alone induced a very high average IgG1/IgG2a ratio of 1531364 above 50 (Figure S3A) that was similar to responses induced in the presence of chitosan. In contrast 23115181 all the TLR adjuvant candidates significantlyVaginal immunisation with gp140 and TTVaginal administration of CN54gp140 failed to induce detectable systemic or vaginal IgG and IgA responses. Likewise, none of the candidate adjuvants tested induced specific systemic antibody titres following vaginal immunisation. Lack of local vaginalFigure 4. Intranasal immunisation with Tetanus toxoid. Endpoint titres for IgG (A, C) and IgA (B, D) in sera (upper panels) and vaginal washes (lower panels) from animals immunised three times with Tetanus toxoid intranasally. Asterisks indicate significant differences between the different adjuvant/antigen groups and the PBS control group. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050529.gMucosal TLR Adjuvants for HIV-gpFigure 5. Intravaginal immunisation with Tetanus toxoid. Endpoint titres for IgG (A, C) and IgA (B, D) in sera (upper panels) and vaginal washes (lower panels) from animals immunised three times with Tetanus toxoid intravaginally. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050529.gFigure 6. Subcutaneous immunisation with gp140. Endpoint titres for IgG (A, C) and IgA (B, D) in sera (upper panels) and vaginal washes (lower panels) from animals immunised three times with gp140 subcutaneously. Asterisks indicate significant differences between the different adjuvant/ antigen groups and the PBS control group. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050529.gMucosal TLR Adjuvants for HIV-gpreduced this ratio providing a more balanced response, most evident with MPLA. When TT was given subcutaneously, the antigen alone induced very high IgG responses systemically that were enhanced by FSL1, poly I:C, MPLA, and Pam3CSK4 (p,0.01) up to 5.6 fold (Figure 7A). Systemic IgA responses to TT alone were at or below the cut-off for detection (Fig. 7B). Poly I:C and chitosan induced significant TT specific IgA titres (p,0.01) although modest in comparison to other routes of immunisation. In vaginal wash samples, detectable IgG titres were observed, with no significant differences between groups. Specific IgA responses to TT alone were very low but increased by FSL-1, politic, Pam3CSK4 (p,0.01) and MPLA (p = 0.04) (Figure 7C and D). IgG subclass analysis showed that TT given alone induced a very high IgG1/IgG2a ratio, above 50 (Figure S3B). This was significantly reduced by co-administration of TLR agonists: FSL1, MPLA, Pam3CSK4, R848 and CpG B.DiscussionIn the present study, we investigate the impact of a range of TLR ligands as potential adjuvants for different routes of mucosal immunisation and their ability to enhance specific antibody responses to gp140 and TT in systemic and vaginal compartments. In addition we characterize the different impact of TLR adjuvants by route of administration on the balance of Th1/Th2 type humoral immune responses. Subl.

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