En further (Fig. 1C). Fig. 1D showed the representative western bands

En further (Fig. 1C). Fig. 1D showed the representative western bands corresponding to protein markers and animal groups.11089-65-9 effects of Diet and Brain Trauma in Spinal CordFigure 1. Synaptic plasticity markers BDNF (A), pTrkB (B), and pCREB (C) protein Licochalcone-A levels were assessed in the lumbar spinal cord of rats exposed to FPI, using western blot assay. (D). Representative western blot bands from experimental groups. Results were expressed as mean 6 standard error of the mean (SEM), *P,0.05, **P,0.01.FPI, fluid percussion injury; n-3 def, omega 3 fatty acids deficient; n-3 adq, omega 3 fatty acid adequate. n-3 def/sham: n = 5; n-3 adq/sham: n = 6; n-3 def/FPI: n = 5; n-3 adq/FPI: n = 7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052998.gMembrane Homeostasis (Fig. 2)We assessed levels of 4-HNE which is a suitable marker of plasma membrane lipid peroxidation. Results showed that the n-3 def diet increased levels of 4-HNE in the spinal cord as compared to n-3 adq diet (p,0.01, Fig. 2A, 2B). FPI elevated 4-HNE levels even further in the n-3 def animals (p,0.01, Fig. 2A, 2B). Although FPI also elevated levels of 4-HNE in the n-3 adq group, 4-HNE levels were lower than in the n-3 def group (p,0.01, Fig. 2A, 2B). We measured iPLA2 levels based on its involvement in the metabolism of membrane phospholipids [11] FPI significantly reduced the levels of iPLA2 in the animals fed n-3 deficient diet (n3 def/FPI vs. n-3 def/sham, p,0.01). FPI had no effects on levels of iPLA-2 in the n-3 adq group suggesting a counteractive effect (Fig. 2C) such that levels of iPLA2 in the n-3 def rats exposed to FPI rats were significantly lower than their counterpart in the n-3 adq group (p,0.01, Fig. 2C). Although the exposure to the n-3 deficient diet did not affect levels of syntaxin-3 in the sham rats relative to the adq group, FPI strongly reduced syntaxin-3 levels in the n-3 def group (n-3 def/ FPI group as compared to n-3 adq/FPI group (P,0.01) and n-3 def/sham (P,0.05) groups (Fig. 2D).Fatty Acids in Spinal Cord (Fig. 3)Levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) were measured in the spinal cord region using gas chromatography. Results showed that the levels of DHA significantly decreased in animals fed on n-3 deficient diet (n-3 def/sham). FPI did not 24195657 affect levels of DHA in the n-3 def group (n-3 def/FPI) or the n-3 adq group (Fig. 3A). In turn, levels of AA were increased significantly in the sham and FPI groups exposed to the n-3 deficient diet (p,0.01, Fig. 3B). FPI also increased AA levels in the n-3 adq rats (P,0.05) (Fig. 3B).DiscussionWe found that brain concussive injury reduces molecular substrates of plasticity in the spinal cord, and these effects were dependent on the availability of DHA in the diet. These results emphasize the comprehensive action of TBI across the neuroaxis, and the critical role of diet as a means to build resistance against the effects of TBI. According to our results, proper exposure to n-3 fatty acids during gestation and throughout maturation of the CNS is crucial for building neural resilience during adulthood. The effects of diet and TBI were observed on levels of moleculesEffects of Diet and Brain Trauma in Spinal CordFigure 2. Levels of molecules related to plasma membrane homeostasis 4-HNE (A, B), iPLA2 (C), and syntaxin 3 (D) in the lumbar spinal cord of rats exposed to FPI. Results were expressed as mean 6 standard error of the mean (SEM), *P,0.05, **P,0.01. FPI, fluid percussion injury; n-3 def, omega 3.En further (Fig. 1C). Fig. 1D showed the representative western bands corresponding to protein markers and animal groups.Effects of Diet and Brain Trauma in Spinal CordFigure 1. Synaptic plasticity markers BDNF (A), pTrkB (B), and pCREB (C) protein levels were assessed in the lumbar spinal cord of rats exposed to FPI, using western blot assay. (D). Representative western blot bands from experimental groups. Results were expressed as mean 6 standard error of the mean (SEM), *P,0.05, **P,0.01.FPI, fluid percussion injury; n-3 def, omega 3 fatty acids deficient; n-3 adq, omega 3 fatty acid adequate. n-3 def/sham: n = 5; n-3 adq/sham: n = 6; n-3 def/FPI: n = 5; n-3 adq/FPI: n = 7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052998.gMembrane Homeostasis (Fig. 2)We assessed levels of 4-HNE which is a suitable marker of plasma membrane lipid peroxidation. Results showed that the n-3 def diet increased levels of 4-HNE in the spinal cord as compared to n-3 adq diet (p,0.01, Fig. 2A, 2B). FPI elevated 4-HNE levels even further in the n-3 def animals (p,0.01, Fig. 2A, 2B). Although FPI also elevated levels of 4-HNE in the n-3 adq group, 4-HNE levels were lower than in the n-3 def group (p,0.01, Fig. 2A, 2B). We measured iPLA2 levels based on its involvement in the metabolism of membrane phospholipids [11] FPI significantly reduced the levels of iPLA2 in the animals fed n-3 deficient diet (n3 def/FPI vs. n-3 def/sham, p,0.01). FPI had no effects on levels of iPLA-2 in the n-3 adq group suggesting a counteractive effect (Fig. 2C) such that levels of iPLA2 in the n-3 def rats exposed to FPI rats were significantly lower than their counterpart in the n-3 adq group (p,0.01, Fig. 2C). Although the exposure to the n-3 deficient diet did not affect levels of syntaxin-3 in the sham rats relative to the adq group, FPI strongly reduced syntaxin-3 levels in the n-3 def group (n-3 def/ FPI group as compared to n-3 adq/FPI group (P,0.01) and n-3 def/sham (P,0.05) groups (Fig. 2D).Fatty Acids in Spinal Cord (Fig. 3)Levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) were measured in the spinal cord region using gas chromatography. Results showed that the levels of DHA significantly decreased in animals fed on n-3 deficient diet (n-3 def/sham). FPI did not 24195657 affect levels of DHA in the n-3 def group (n-3 def/FPI) or the n-3 adq group (Fig. 3A). In turn, levels of AA were increased significantly in the sham and FPI groups exposed to the n-3 deficient diet (p,0.01, Fig. 3B). FPI also increased AA levels in the n-3 adq rats (P,0.05) (Fig. 3B).DiscussionWe found that brain concussive injury reduces molecular substrates of plasticity in the spinal cord, and these effects were dependent on the availability of DHA in the diet. These results emphasize the comprehensive action of TBI across the neuroaxis, and the critical role of diet as a means to build resistance against the effects of TBI. According to our results, proper exposure to n-3 fatty acids during gestation and throughout maturation of the CNS is crucial for building neural resilience during adulthood. The effects of diet and TBI were observed on levels of moleculesEffects of Diet and Brain Trauma in Spinal CordFigure 2. Levels of molecules related to plasma membrane homeostasis 4-HNE (A, B), iPLA2 (C), and syntaxin 3 (D) in the lumbar spinal cord of rats exposed to FPI. Results were expressed as mean 6 standard error of the mean (SEM), *P,0.05, **P,0.01. FPI, fluid percussion injury; n-3 def, omega 3.

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