Domonas aeruginosa [14,15]. There is, however, no evidence that ClpP protease plays

Domonas aeruginosa [14,15]. There is, however, no evidence that ClpP protease plays a role in the stress response or biofilm formation related to A. pleuropneumoniae. In the present study, we inactivated the clpP gene in A. pleuropneumoniae strain S8 by homologous recombination using a sucrose counter-selectable marker system. We found that the ClpP protease mediates tolerance to multiple stressors, including heat, oxidative stress and osmotic stress. Interestingly, we found that the deletion of the clpP gene improved the iron utilization of A. pleuropneumoniae. We also showed that ClpP affects the cell morphology of and biofilms formed by A. pleuropneumoniae and that ClpP might play an important role in the regulation of virulence.Role of ClpP in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniaeMaterials and Methods Bacterial strains, plasmids and growth conditionsThe bacterial strains, plasmids and Thiazole Orange primers used in this work are listed in Table 1. E. coli b2155 (DdapA) was cultured in LB medium supplemented with diaminopimelic acid (1 mM; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 strain S8 was isolated from the lung of a diseased pig in northern China. A. pleuropneumoniae strains were cultured in brain heart infusion (BHI, Oxoid Ltd, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK) supplemented with nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD, 10 mg/mL; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). A. pleuropneumoniae transconjugants (single crossovers) and transformants were grown in a BHI supplemented with NAD (10 mg/mL) and chloramphenicol (5 mg/mL). A.pleuropneumoniae S8HB were grown in a BHI supplemented with NAD (10 mg/mL) and kanamycin (30 mg/mL).single-overlap extension PCR (SOE PCR) [20]. The resultant 2449 bp PCR product, containing an internal in-frame deletion of 491 bp in the clpP gene (from nt 44 to 534), was ligated into the conjugative plasmid MedChemExpress 1418741-86-2 pEMOC2 to yield plasmid pEMDclpP. Using E. coli strain b2155 [21], plasmid pEMDclpP was used to introduce the clpP deletion into A. pleuropneumoniae strain S8 via the single-step transconjugation system, as described previously [22,23], resulting in A. pleuropneumoniae S8DclpP. PCR using primers clpPJDF/ clpPJDR was used to distinguish between wild-type strains and mutants, and the PCR products were sequenced.Complementation of A. pleuropneumoniae S8DclpPThe pLSclpP plasmid was constructed by cloning the 591-bp PCR product generated by the clpPHBF/clpPHBR primers (Table 1), which contained the entire clpP open reading frame (ORF), into the pLS88 plasmid [24]. The plasmid was then electroporated into A. pleuropneumoniae strain S8DclpP. The complemented A. pleuropneumoniae mutants were selected on BHI containing both NAD and kanamycin, and confirmed with PCR using the clpPHBF/clpPHBR primers.Chromosomal inactivation of the clpP genePrimers clpPSF/clpPSR and clpPXF/clpPXR (Table 1) were designed to generate a 491 bp internal deletion in the clpP gene byTable 1. Characteristics of bacterial strains, plasmids, and primers used in this study.Strains, plasmids, and primers Strains E. coli b2155 A.pleuropneumoniae S8 A.pleuropneumoniae S8DclpP A.pleuropneumoniae S8HB Plasmids pMD18-T simple pMDDclpP pEMOC2 pEMDclpP pLS88 pLSclpP Primers clpPSF clpPSRCharacteristics or sequenceSource or referencethrB1004 pro thi strA hsdS lacZDM15 (F9 lacZDM15 laclq traD36 proA+ proB+)Ddap :: erm (Ermr))recA :: RPA-2-tet (Tcr)::Mu-km (Kmr) lpir A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 clinical isolate from the lung of a diseased pig in northern China U.Domonas aeruginosa [14,15]. There is, however, no evidence that ClpP protease plays a role in the stress response or biofilm formation related to A. pleuropneumoniae. In the present study, we inactivated the clpP gene in A. pleuropneumoniae strain S8 by homologous recombination using a sucrose counter-selectable marker system. We found that the ClpP protease mediates tolerance to multiple stressors, including heat, oxidative stress and osmotic stress. Interestingly, we found that the deletion of the clpP gene improved the iron utilization of A. pleuropneumoniae. We also showed that ClpP affects the cell morphology of and biofilms formed by A. pleuropneumoniae and that ClpP might play an important role in the regulation of virulence.Role of ClpP in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniaeMaterials and Methods Bacterial strains, plasmids and growth conditionsThe bacterial strains, plasmids and primers used in this work are listed in Table 1. E. coli b2155 (DdapA) was cultured in LB medium supplemented with diaminopimelic acid (1 mM; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 strain S8 was isolated from the lung of a diseased pig in northern China. A. pleuropneumoniae strains were cultured in brain heart infusion (BHI, Oxoid Ltd, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK) supplemented with nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD, 10 mg/mL; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). A. pleuropneumoniae transconjugants (single crossovers) and transformants were grown in a BHI supplemented with NAD (10 mg/mL) and chloramphenicol (5 mg/mL). A.pleuropneumoniae S8HB were grown in a BHI supplemented with NAD (10 mg/mL) and kanamycin (30 mg/mL).single-overlap extension PCR (SOE PCR) [20]. The resultant 2449 bp PCR product, containing an internal in-frame deletion of 491 bp in the clpP gene (from nt 44 to 534), was ligated into the conjugative plasmid pEMOC2 to yield plasmid pEMDclpP. Using E. coli strain b2155 [21], plasmid pEMDclpP was used to introduce the clpP deletion into A. pleuropneumoniae strain S8 via the single-step transconjugation system, as described previously [22,23], resulting in A. pleuropneumoniae S8DclpP. PCR using primers clpPJDF/ clpPJDR was used to distinguish between wild-type strains and mutants, and the PCR products were sequenced.Complementation of A. pleuropneumoniae S8DclpPThe pLSclpP plasmid was constructed by cloning the 591-bp PCR product generated by the clpPHBF/clpPHBR primers (Table 1), which contained the entire clpP open reading frame (ORF), into the pLS88 plasmid [24]. The plasmid was then electroporated into A. pleuropneumoniae strain S8DclpP. The complemented A. pleuropneumoniae mutants were selected on BHI containing both NAD and kanamycin, and confirmed with PCR using the clpPHBF/clpPHBR primers.Chromosomal inactivation of the clpP genePrimers clpPSF/clpPSR and clpPXF/clpPXR (Table 1) were designed to generate a 491 bp internal deletion in the clpP gene byTable 1. Characteristics of bacterial strains, plasmids, and primers used in this study.Strains, plasmids, and primers Strains E. coli b2155 A.pleuropneumoniae S8 A.pleuropneumoniae S8DclpP A.pleuropneumoniae S8HB Plasmids pMD18-T simple pMDDclpP pEMOC2 pEMDclpP pLS88 pLSclpP Primers clpPSF clpPSRCharacteristics or sequenceSource or referencethrB1004 pro thi strA hsdS lacZDM15 (F9 lacZDM15 laclq traD36 proA+ proB+)Ddap :: erm (Ermr))recA :: RPA-2-tet (Tcr)::Mu-km (Kmr) lpir A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 clinical isolate from the lung of a diseased pig in northern China U.

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