Bsence of engineered nucleases because the HygroR and eGFP sequences are

Bsence of engineered nucleases because the HygroR and eGFP sequences are out of frame. If a double-strand break is introduced into the target sequence by engineered nucleases, the break is repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), which often results in indels. Indel generation can cause frame shifts, rendering HygroR-eGFP in frame and expressed. (B) A schematic depicting the enrichment of 78919-13-8 site mutant cells using the hygromycin reporter. HygroR-eGFP fusion gene-expressing cells can be 1655472 selected using hygromycin treatment. Mutant cells were enriched in this population of HygroR-eGFP-expressing cells. Reporter plasmids and chromosomal target loci are shown. Black spots represent mutations. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056476.gMutant cell enrichment using hygromycin reportersWe next sought to make reporters that rely on neither flow cytometers nor magnetic separation systems. For this, we developed reporters that express a hygromycin-resistance protein (HygroR)-GFP fusion protein only when the target sequences are cleaved by nucleases (Figure 4). Hygromycin treatment after transfection of Z891-encoding plasmids and its reporter into HEK293 cells led to the enrichment of GFP+ cells (Figure 5A). The T7E1 assay revealed that the mutation frequency at the CCR5 gene in the hygromycin-resistant cells was 42 , 16-fold higher than that in unselected cells (Figure 5B). DNA sequencing of this region corroborated this result by showing that the mutation frequency was 39 , 8.5-fold higher than that in unselected cells (4.6 ) (Figure 5C). Furthermore, this reporter system allowed 15fold enrichment of mutant cells induced by a BRCA1-targeting TALEN (Figure S2), suggesting that the hygromycin reporters are compatible with TALENs as well as ZFNs. We next performed clonal analysis to determine whether hygromycin reporters can facilitate the generation of cells with bi-allelic mutations. After hygromycin treatment, the drugresistant cells were plated at a density of 3,000 cells/100 mm dish, and the clonal colonies were manually picked 10 days after plating and subjected to analysis. The T7E1 assay revealed thatthe frequency of 15857111 mutant colonies in the hygromycin-selected group was 39 (11/28), 22-fold higher than that in the unselected group, in which the frequency was 1.8 (1/56) (Figure S3). Subsequent DNA sequencing confirmed that all 11 colonies were mutant in the hygromycin-selected group, whereas only one colony out of 56 colonies was mutant in the unselected group (Figure 6). Among the 11 colonies, 6 colonies had bi-allelic mutations, suggesting that biallelic mutant colonies can be obtained in a highly efficient manner using the hygromycin reporter.Comparison of reportersWe next compared the efficiencies of mutant cell enrichment obtained with the two new reporter systems to those obtained via flow cytometry. When a CCR5-targeting ZFN pair (Z891) is used, the enrichment of mutant cells using flow cytometric sorting, magnetic separation, and hygromycin selection was 11-, 12-, 16fold, respectively, suggesting BTZ043 comparable enrichment folds (Table 1). In case of a TP53-targeting ZFN pair, the enrichment folds by flow cytometric sorting and magnetic separation were 13and 17-fold, respectively. Similar fold enrichment was also observed when a BRCA1-targeting TALEN pair was used: 17fold enrichment by magnetic separation and 15-fold enrichment by hygromycin selection. Collectively, enrichment of mutant cellsFlow Cytometer-Free Enrichment of Mutant CellsFigure 5. Hy.Bsence of engineered nucleases because the HygroR and eGFP sequences are out of frame. If a double-strand break is introduced into the target sequence by engineered nucleases, the break is repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), which often results in indels. Indel generation can cause frame shifts, rendering HygroR-eGFP in frame and expressed. (B) A schematic depicting the enrichment of mutant cells using the hygromycin reporter. HygroR-eGFP fusion gene-expressing cells can be 1655472 selected using hygromycin treatment. Mutant cells were enriched in this population of HygroR-eGFP-expressing cells. Reporter plasmids and chromosomal target loci are shown. Black spots represent mutations. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056476.gMutant cell enrichment using hygromycin reportersWe next sought to make reporters that rely on neither flow cytometers nor magnetic separation systems. For this, we developed reporters that express a hygromycin-resistance protein (HygroR)-GFP fusion protein only when the target sequences are cleaved by nucleases (Figure 4). Hygromycin treatment after transfection of Z891-encoding plasmids and its reporter into HEK293 cells led to the enrichment of GFP+ cells (Figure 5A). The T7E1 assay revealed that the mutation frequency at the CCR5 gene in the hygromycin-resistant cells was 42 , 16-fold higher than that in unselected cells (Figure 5B). DNA sequencing of this region corroborated this result by showing that the mutation frequency was 39 , 8.5-fold higher than that in unselected cells (4.6 ) (Figure 5C). Furthermore, this reporter system allowed 15fold enrichment of mutant cells induced by a BRCA1-targeting TALEN (Figure S2), suggesting that the hygromycin reporters are compatible with TALENs as well as ZFNs. We next performed clonal analysis to determine whether hygromycin reporters can facilitate the generation of cells with bi-allelic mutations. After hygromycin treatment, the drugresistant cells were plated at a density of 3,000 cells/100 mm dish, and the clonal colonies were manually picked 10 days after plating and subjected to analysis. The T7E1 assay revealed thatthe frequency of 15857111 mutant colonies in the hygromycin-selected group was 39 (11/28), 22-fold higher than that in the unselected group, in which the frequency was 1.8 (1/56) (Figure S3). Subsequent DNA sequencing confirmed that all 11 colonies were mutant in the hygromycin-selected group, whereas only one colony out of 56 colonies was mutant in the unselected group (Figure 6). Among the 11 colonies, 6 colonies had bi-allelic mutations, suggesting that biallelic mutant colonies can be obtained in a highly efficient manner using the hygromycin reporter.Comparison of reportersWe next compared the efficiencies of mutant cell enrichment obtained with the two new reporter systems to those obtained via flow cytometry. When a CCR5-targeting ZFN pair (Z891) is used, the enrichment of mutant cells using flow cytometric sorting, magnetic separation, and hygromycin selection was 11-, 12-, 16fold, respectively, suggesting comparable enrichment folds (Table 1). In case of a TP53-targeting ZFN pair, the enrichment folds by flow cytometric sorting and magnetic separation were 13and 17-fold, respectively. Similar fold enrichment was also observed when a BRCA1-targeting TALEN pair was used: 17fold enrichment by magnetic separation and 15-fold enrichment by hygromycin selection. Collectively, enrichment of mutant cellsFlow Cytometer-Free Enrichment of Mutant CellsFigure 5. Hy.

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