Tuberculosis and only a minority, 17 and 18 respectively, had exclusively pulmonary or

Tuberculosis and only a minority, 17 and 18 respectively, had exclusively pulmonary or extrapulmonary TB at a single site. Just over half of MedChemExpress NHS-Biotin patients were presenting with a repeat episode of tuberculosis and 50 were newly diagnosed with HIV. The median time from the start of anti-tuberculosis treatment to ART start was 36 days (IQR, 27?7) and the majority (95 ) received an efavirenz-based regimen, more commonly with tenofovir than stavudine (Table 2). Twenty-four patients (21 )Study ProcedureFollow-up was for 12 weeks after starting ART. Patients were assessed at 11967625 8 time-points: enrolment, ART initiation, then weekly for four weeks and again at week 8 and week 12 after ART initiation. At each scheduled visit, an infectious diseases specialist examined patients and targeted laboratory (including bacterial cultures and serum cryptococcal antigen) and radiological investigations were performed if there was clinical deterioration. Baseline clinical and laboratory data was recorded: age, gender, CD4 T-lymphocyte count (CD4 count), HIV viral load, WHOComplexity of ART in Hospitalised HIV-TB PatientsFigure 1. Patient enrollment. LTFU = lost to follow-up, TFO = transferred out. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054145.gwere receiving corticosteroids at the time of starting ART; the main indication for using corticosteroids was for TB meningitis in 20 patients. Ninety-six patients completed 12-weeks of follow-up, with 4 patients absconding from hospital after completing 8 weeks of inpatient ART.Table 2. Antiretroviral therapy and duration of hospitalization.Reason not on ART at enrollment New HIV diagnosis: n ( ) Did not fulfill criteria for ART previously 1, n ( ) 57 (51) 13 (12) 11 (10)Table 1. Baseline Characteristics of 112 HIV-TB Inpatients starting ART.Personal reasons e.g. denial, n ( ) ART ?ART naive, n ( )109 (97)Age: years, median (IQR) Female gender, n ( ) CD4 count, cells/mm3, median, (IQR) HIV viral load, log copies/mL, median (IQR) WHO Stage 4, n ( ) Haemoglobin, g/dL, median (IQR) Weight, kg, median (IQR) Bed bound: n ( ) Corticosteroids at baseline: n ( ) Tuberculosis Diagnosis microbiologically confirmed: n ( )* Previous TB: n ( ) Exclusively PTB: n ( ) EPTB at single site: n ( ) Disseminated TB: n ( ) Neurological TB: n ( ) *82 cultured MTB, and 4 only smear positive. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054145.t32 (27?0) 67 (60) 55 (31?06) 5.6 (5.1?.1) 97 (87) 9.0 (8.7?10.3) 46 (39?2) 91 (82) 25 (22)Median time from starting TB treatment to ART start, 36 (27?7) days (IQR) Median time from hospitalization to ART start, days (IQR) ART regimen, n ( ) D4T 3TC EFV TdF 3TC EFV AZT 3TC EFV D4T 3TC NVP AZT, 3TC, lopinavir/ritonavir Hospital stay 43 (38) 54 (48) 10 (9) 4 (4) 1 (1) 16(12?3)86 (77) 66 (59) 19 (17) 20 (18) 73 (65) 30 (27)Duration of JW 74 admission at referral hospital, days, median (IQR) Length of admission at BCH*115 (11?1) 99 (75?30)CD4.200 cells/mm , WHO clinical stage 1?. *Information available for 94 subjects only, deaths excluded. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054145.tComplexity of ART in Hospitalised HIV-TB PatientsClinical DeteriorationOverall 76 (68 ) patients experienced a significant clinical deterioration after initiating ART. A total number of 144 events were recorded with a median of 2 events (range 1?) per patient. Paradoxical TB-IRIS, HAI, drug toxicity (most commonly efavirenz-related neuropsychiatric toxicity) and unmasking of opportunistic diseases (most commonly oesophageal candidiasis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and Kapo.Tuberculosis and only a minority, 17 and 18 respectively, had exclusively pulmonary or extrapulmonary TB at a single site. Just over half of patients were presenting with a repeat episode of tuberculosis and 50 were newly diagnosed with HIV. The median time from the start of anti-tuberculosis treatment to ART start was 36 days (IQR, 27?7) and the majority (95 ) received an efavirenz-based regimen, more commonly with tenofovir than stavudine (Table 2). Twenty-four patients (21 )Study ProcedureFollow-up was for 12 weeks after starting ART. Patients were assessed at 11967625 8 time-points: enrolment, ART initiation, then weekly for four weeks and again at week 8 and week 12 after ART initiation. At each scheduled visit, an infectious diseases specialist examined patients and targeted laboratory (including bacterial cultures and serum cryptococcal antigen) and radiological investigations were performed if there was clinical deterioration. Baseline clinical and laboratory data was recorded: age, gender, CD4 T-lymphocyte count (CD4 count), HIV viral load, WHOComplexity of ART in Hospitalised HIV-TB PatientsFigure 1. Patient enrollment. LTFU = lost to follow-up, TFO = transferred out. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054145.gwere receiving corticosteroids at the time of starting ART; the main indication for using corticosteroids was for TB meningitis in 20 patients. Ninety-six patients completed 12-weeks of follow-up, with 4 patients absconding from hospital after completing 8 weeks of inpatient ART.Table 2. Antiretroviral therapy and duration of hospitalization.Reason not on ART at enrollment New HIV diagnosis: n ( ) Did not fulfill criteria for ART previously 1, n ( ) 57 (51) 13 (12) 11 (10)Table 1. Baseline Characteristics of 112 HIV-TB Inpatients starting ART.Personal reasons e.g. denial, n ( ) ART ?ART naive, n ( )109 (97)Age: years, median (IQR) Female gender, n ( ) CD4 count, cells/mm3, median, (IQR) HIV viral load, log copies/mL, median (IQR) WHO Stage 4, n ( ) Haemoglobin, g/dL, median (IQR) Weight, kg, median (IQR) Bed bound: n ( ) Corticosteroids at baseline: n ( ) Tuberculosis Diagnosis microbiologically confirmed: n ( )* Previous TB: n ( ) Exclusively PTB: n ( ) EPTB at single site: n ( ) Disseminated TB: n ( ) Neurological TB: n ( ) *82 cultured MTB, and 4 only smear positive. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054145.t32 (27?0) 67 (60) 55 (31?06) 5.6 (5.1?.1) 97 (87) 9.0 (8.7?10.3) 46 (39?2) 91 (82) 25 (22)Median time from starting TB treatment to ART start, 36 (27?7) days (IQR) Median time from hospitalization to ART start, days (IQR) ART regimen, n ( ) D4T 3TC EFV TdF 3TC EFV AZT 3TC EFV D4T 3TC NVP AZT, 3TC, lopinavir/ritonavir Hospital stay 43 (38) 54 (48) 10 (9) 4 (4) 1 (1) 16(12?3)86 (77) 66 (59) 19 (17) 20 (18) 73 (65) 30 (27)Duration of admission at referral hospital, days, median (IQR) Length of admission at BCH*115 (11?1) 99 (75?30)CD4.200 cells/mm , WHO clinical stage 1?. *Information available for 94 subjects only, deaths excluded. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054145.tComplexity of ART in Hospitalised HIV-TB PatientsClinical DeteriorationOverall 76 (68 ) patients experienced a significant clinical deterioration after initiating ART. A total number of 144 events were recorded with a median of 2 events (range 1?) per patient. Paradoxical TB-IRIS, HAI, drug toxicity (most commonly efavirenz-related neuropsychiatric toxicity) and unmasking of opportunistic diseases (most commonly oesophageal candidiasis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and Kapo.

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