E total number of states read: IzRIzRzO 1 for nTvtv(nz1)T

E total number of states read: IzRIzRzO 1 for nTvtv(nz1)T{t0 ms ??IzRIzRzO RClamp for (nz1)T{t0 vtv(nz1)T ms??with the recovery rate changing form the original value to tr = 50 ms (kim = 0.02 ms21) in the last t0 before each external excitation. To make both the unclamped and clamped dynamics equivalent, Rclamp is taken to be the maximum number of presystolic non-inactivated channels obtained in the presence of alternans when no clamping protocol is used (see Figure 2B). In effect, this means disabling a ratio of 1- Rclamp at time (n+1)T-t0 and leaving Rclamp active as indicated in Eq. (4).Results Effect of RyR2 Activation and Inactivation on the Induction of AlternansTo validate the model, we first verified that changes in RyR2 activation and inactivation rates could produce alternans at fast get 370-86-5 pacing rates. Additionally, Picht et al [9] observed that calcium release increases with rest time, even if the content of the SR decreases (and the ICaL current has fully recovered), and they suggested that this post-rest potentiation is due to a slow recovery from refractoriness of RyR2 calcium release. In the current model,refractoriness is given by the recovery of the RyR2 from inactivation. We find that, for a recovery time of tr = 750 ms, the model reproduces qualitatively the post-rest potentiation of RyR2 calcium release, as shown in Figure S6 in Appendix S1. The original parameters in the Shannon model did not present calcium alternans at any frequency. However, Figure 3A shows that reduced activation and inactivation (ka = 8.5 mM22 ms21, ki = 0.17 mM21 ms21, or 85 and 35 of the original values), lead to calcium alternans. Alternans first appeared transiently when the pacing rate was increased from 3 Hz to 4 Hz, and thereafter became sustained at 5 Hz. Notice that changes in the RyR2 produced oscillations in the SR calcium loading despite the fact that neither changes in the loading properties of the SERCA pump, nor in the calsequestrin (CSQN) levels of the SR were introduced. Alternans was not only associated with oscillations in the SR calcium loading (cSR), but also with alternations in the level of recovered RyR2s ready to open on each stimulation. Subsequently, the model was used to examine how changes in the RyR2 activation-inactivation rates were able to induce alternans even at normal pacing rates (3 Hz). Figure 3 shows that cytosolic calcium alternans 15857111 appears when either activation or inactivation rates are diminished. The onset of alternans appeared at different combinations of activation and inactivation rates, defining a boundary between 1113-59-3 biological activity uniform and alternating responses (Figures 3B, C, D), which moved depending on stimulation frequency (Figure 3E). As expected, the area of alternating responses increased as the stimulation frequency was increased (Figure 3E). For some parameters (gray area in Figures 3B, C and D) we also observed the presence of a complex beat-to-beat behavior, including 3:1 or 4:1 rhythms, or seemingly chaotic dynamics. To check that the observed alternations were due to instability in the calcium handling dynamics, with no significant effect of voltage dynamics on their generation, we repeated the previous simulations using an AP clamp protocol, obtaining the same resultsCa2+ Alternans and RyR2 RefractorinessFigure 2. Dynamic protocol for eliminating oscillations in the pre-systolic level of recovered RyRs. Panel A) indicates the moment where the protocol is activated while panel B) shows the intervals wh.E total number of states read: IzRIzRzO 1 for nTvtv(nz1)T{t0 ms ??IzRIzRzO RClamp for (nz1)T{t0 vtv(nz1)T ms??with the recovery rate changing form the original value to tr = 50 ms (kim = 0.02 ms21) in the last t0 before each external excitation. To make both the unclamped and clamped dynamics equivalent, Rclamp is taken to be the maximum number of presystolic non-inactivated channels obtained in the presence of alternans when no clamping protocol is used (see Figure 2B). In effect, this means disabling a ratio of 1- Rclamp at time (n+1)T-t0 and leaving Rclamp active as indicated in Eq. (4).Results Effect of RyR2 Activation and Inactivation on the Induction of AlternansTo validate the model, we first verified that changes in RyR2 activation and inactivation rates could produce alternans at fast pacing rates. Additionally, Picht et al [9] observed that calcium release increases with rest time, even if the content of the SR decreases (and the ICaL current has fully recovered), and they suggested that this post-rest potentiation is due to a slow recovery from refractoriness of RyR2 calcium release. In the current model,refractoriness is given by the recovery of the RyR2 from inactivation. We find that, for a recovery time of tr = 750 ms, the model reproduces qualitatively the post-rest potentiation of RyR2 calcium release, as shown in Figure S6 in Appendix S1. The original parameters in the Shannon model did not present calcium alternans at any frequency. However, Figure 3A shows that reduced activation and inactivation (ka = 8.5 mM22 ms21, ki = 0.17 mM21 ms21, or 85 and 35 of the original values), lead to calcium alternans. Alternans first appeared transiently when the pacing rate was increased from 3 Hz to 4 Hz, and thereafter became sustained at 5 Hz. Notice that changes in the RyR2 produced oscillations in the SR calcium loading despite the fact that neither changes in the loading properties of the SERCA pump, nor in the calsequestrin (CSQN) levels of the SR were introduced. Alternans was not only associated with oscillations in the SR calcium loading (cSR), but also with alternations in the level of recovered RyR2s ready to open on each stimulation. Subsequently, the model was used to examine how changes in the RyR2 activation-inactivation rates were able to induce alternans even at normal pacing rates (3 Hz). Figure 3 shows that cytosolic calcium alternans 15857111 appears when either activation or inactivation rates are diminished. The onset of alternans appeared at different combinations of activation and inactivation rates, defining a boundary between uniform and alternating responses (Figures 3B, C, D), which moved depending on stimulation frequency (Figure 3E). As expected, the area of alternating responses increased as the stimulation frequency was increased (Figure 3E). For some parameters (gray area in Figures 3B, C and D) we also observed the presence of a complex beat-to-beat behavior, including 3:1 or 4:1 rhythms, or seemingly chaotic dynamics. To check that the observed alternations were due to instability in the calcium handling dynamics, with no significant effect of voltage dynamics on their generation, we repeated the previous simulations using an AP clamp protocol, obtaining the same resultsCa2+ Alternans and RyR2 RefractorinessFigure 2. Dynamic protocol for eliminating oscillations in the pre-systolic level of recovered RyRs. Panel A) indicates the moment where the protocol is activated while panel B) shows the intervals wh.

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