G High EngagementFluctuation over time. User engagement with items on CERN

G High EngagementFluctuation over time. User engagement with items on CERN’s social media platforms fluctuated strongly over time. Fig 4 represents the pattern of user interactions with items posted on CERN’s Facebook page over the time period studied, normalized by daily audience size. In total, the audience typically engaged with items at a constant rate of interactions throughout the study, as illustrated by the cluster of observations near the x axis. In addition, several outliers were found, some with z-scores as high as 5 or more, meaning that for certain items, user behaviours occurred as often as 5 standard deviations more than the means for those behaviours on the respective platforms. A similar pattern of user behaviour was found in most platforms studied. High-engagement items. Thirty-five (35) high-engagement items were found in the study, comprising more than 16 of the 214 items included in the sample. These were defined as items with at least one user behaviour statistic scoring z 1.96. As an example, the six highengagement items for CERN’s Facebook page are labelled in Fig 4A. The point labelled “Open Data” in Fig 4A, for instance, refers to click-throughs on a link in the Facebook announcement that CERN had launched an Open Data Portal to make the data of LHC experiments publicly available. This item received high standard scores on Facebook in terms of click-throughs per thousand users (z = 5.05) and shares per thousand users (z = 2.47). Hence, it was considered a high engagement item posted on the Facebook platform. (Since the distribution was strongly right-skewed, no low-engagement items were identified in the study.) The lifetime total reach of these Facebook posts, a measure indicating the number of users who potentially could interact with the post, was similar at 11,490 users (SD 13,900). Most of the posts reached around 10,000 users (Mean 10,300, SD 7,565) except for one outlier, “Dishwasher,” which concerned a dishwasher for circuit boards, and reached over 121,000 users (Fig 4B). This indicates that in not all cases was user engagement necessarily driven by increased reach. Associations between high engagement items and topics. High engagement across platforms is significantly associated with item topic. Six (6) topics were repeatedly popular acrossPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0156409 May 27,12 /Engagement with ASP015K clinical trials Particle Physics on CERN’s Social Media PlatformsFig 4. User engagement with scientific content and reach on CERN’s Facebook page over time, October ecember 2014. (A) User engagement with scientific items over time. Zero represents the mean rate for each user behaviour on Facebook per item per 1,000 Facebook followers on the day of sampling: Likes 1.21 IPI/kU (SD 1.86); Comments 0.0779 IPI/kU (SD 0.17), Shares 0.187 IPI/kU (SD 0.32); Click-throughs 0.256 IPI/kU (SD 0.52). pkU: Per Thousand Users. Z: Z-score. The size of CERN’s Facebook audience size grew from 343,000 to 367,000 over the course of the study. (B) Reach of scientific items over time. Reach is the total number of Facebook users the item was served to. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0156409.gmultiple platforms (hereafter “recurring” high-engagement topics), representing 19 items of the 35 “high engagement” items. For example, the “Open Data” topic received high engagement scores not only on Facebook but also on Google+, Twitter English and Twitter French, making it a RP54476 solubility recurring high-engagement topic. By contrast, another 16 high-engagement.G High EngagementFluctuation over time. User engagement with items on CERN’s social media platforms fluctuated strongly over time. Fig 4 represents the pattern of user interactions with items posted on CERN’s Facebook page over the time period studied, normalized by daily audience size. In total, the audience typically engaged with items at a constant rate of interactions throughout the study, as illustrated by the cluster of observations near the x axis. In addition, several outliers were found, some with z-scores as high as 5 or more, meaning that for certain items, user behaviours occurred as often as 5 standard deviations more than the means for those behaviours on the respective platforms. A similar pattern of user behaviour was found in most platforms studied. High-engagement items. Thirty-five (35) high-engagement items were found in the study, comprising more than 16 of the 214 items included in the sample. These were defined as items with at least one user behaviour statistic scoring z 1.96. As an example, the six highengagement items for CERN’s Facebook page are labelled in Fig 4A. The point labelled “Open Data” in Fig 4A, for instance, refers to click-throughs on a link in the Facebook announcement that CERN had launched an Open Data Portal to make the data of LHC experiments publicly available. This item received high standard scores on Facebook in terms of click-throughs per thousand users (z = 5.05) and shares per thousand users (z = 2.47). Hence, it was considered a high engagement item posted on the Facebook platform. (Since the distribution was strongly right-skewed, no low-engagement items were identified in the study.) The lifetime total reach of these Facebook posts, a measure indicating the number of users who potentially could interact with the post, was similar at 11,490 users (SD 13,900). Most of the posts reached around 10,000 users (Mean 10,300, SD 7,565) except for one outlier, “Dishwasher,” which concerned a dishwasher for circuit boards, and reached over 121,000 users (Fig 4B). This indicates that in not all cases was user engagement necessarily driven by increased reach. Associations between high engagement items and topics. High engagement across platforms is significantly associated with item topic. Six (6) topics were repeatedly popular acrossPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0156409 May 27,12 /Engagement with Particle Physics on CERN’s Social Media PlatformsFig 4. User engagement with scientific content and reach on CERN’s Facebook page over time, October ecember 2014. (A) User engagement with scientific items over time. Zero represents the mean rate for each user behaviour on Facebook per item per 1,000 Facebook followers on the day of sampling: Likes 1.21 IPI/kU (SD 1.86); Comments 0.0779 IPI/kU (SD 0.17), Shares 0.187 IPI/kU (SD 0.32); Click-throughs 0.256 IPI/kU (SD 0.52). pkU: Per Thousand Users. Z: Z-score. The size of CERN’s Facebook audience size grew from 343,000 to 367,000 over the course of the study. (B) Reach of scientific items over time. Reach is the total number of Facebook users the item was served to. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0156409.gmultiple platforms (hereafter “recurring” high-engagement topics), representing 19 items of the 35 “high engagement” items. For example, the “Open Data” topic received high engagement scores not only on Facebook but also on Google+, Twitter English and Twitter French, making it a recurring high-engagement topic. By contrast, another 16 high-engagement.

Our more alternative notations: A ! B, A ! B, Z Y Z

Our more alternative notations: A ! B, A ! B, Z Y Z XY Z X Z Z A ! B, and A ! B. Category 5 (CS) gets one more alternative notation, [A !B and A Z Y Y Z Z Z ZB].Finally, category 6 (asocial) gets two more alternative notations, A !B and A B. For any N ! 2, all of the 2N+1 elementary interactions are included in the representative relationships of the six categories and their alternative notations. This results from the building process of the six categories, with the differentiations covering all possible cases. In the example of N = 3, the above statement is illustrated by the comparison of the sixteen elementary interactions of Table 4 with the six categories and their alternative notations for N = 2 (Table 3), completed by the alternative notations for N = 3 listed above. This concludes the proof of exhaustiveness of the six categories of Table 3 for any number N ! 2 of non-null ZM241385 structure social actions. With N social actions at hand, richer composite relationships can be represented. Let us translate into our action fluxes representation an example of composite relationship given by Goldman [25] (pp. 344-345). Namely, “two SP600125 site friends may share tapes and records freely with each other (CS), work on a task at which one is an expert and imperiously directs the other (AR), divide equally the cost of gas on a trip (EM), and transfer a bicycle from one to the other S2 S4 S5 S6 S1 S for a market-value price (MP).” This gives [A ! B, A 1 B, A ! B, A ! B, A ! B, A ! B].S2 S4 S6 SHere the relationship was known and we wrote it in terms of action fluxes. The next step is to find out how to identify a relationship when the action fluxes are given. We touch on how to achieve this in the discussion.Discussion Analyzing data setsOur representation in action fluxes provides a tool to identify types of dyadic relationships occurring within potentially large data sets of social interactions. Both collective and dyadic interactions may occur in real social contexts, but our approach applies specifically to the latter. Large data sets can result from any type of online social network or massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), for instance. MMORPGs bring hundreds of thousands of players together to cooperate and compete by forming alliances, trading, fighting, and so on, all the while recording every single action and communication of the players. They are used in quantitative social science, for example by Thurner in the context of the game Pardus [26?8]. Ethnological and anthropological studies can provide rich reports of social interactions occurring in non-artificial settings that could be coded and interpreted with the aid of our categorization. Data sets of dyadic interactions can also be generated by computer simulations such as agent-based models (ABMs) to test specific questions. We offer the sketch of a method to analyze a potentially large data set of dyadic social interactions expressed as action fluxes (“A does X to B”, etc.). Given a data set involving a number of individuals, one needs to consider separately each pair of individuals. For each pair, one shall examine each social action and test into which category of action fluxes it falls, possibly jointly with another social action (in the case of MP and AR). In its second column, Table 5 specifies the patterns of fluxes expected to be observed in each category. Let us stress the following points: ?The patterns of observed fluxes given in Table 5 are not meant as definitions of the.Our more alternative notations: A ! B, A ! B, Z Y Z XY Z X Z Z A ! B, and A ! B. Category 5 (CS) gets one more alternative notation, [A !B and A Z Y Y Z Z Z ZB].Finally, category 6 (asocial) gets two more alternative notations, A !B and A B. For any N ! 2, all of the 2N+1 elementary interactions are included in the representative relationships of the six categories and their alternative notations. This results from the building process of the six categories, with the differentiations covering all possible cases. In the example of N = 3, the above statement is illustrated by the comparison of the sixteen elementary interactions of Table 4 with the six categories and their alternative notations for N = 2 (Table 3), completed by the alternative notations for N = 3 listed above. This concludes the proof of exhaustiveness of the six categories of Table 3 for any number N ! 2 of non-null social actions. With N social actions at hand, richer composite relationships can be represented. Let us translate into our action fluxes representation an example of composite relationship given by Goldman [25] (pp. 344-345). Namely, “two friends may share tapes and records freely with each other (CS), work on a task at which one is an expert and imperiously directs the other (AR), divide equally the cost of gas on a trip (EM), and transfer a bicycle from one to the other S2 S4 S5 S6 S1 S for a market-value price (MP).” This gives [A ! B, A 1 B, A ! B, A ! B, A ! B, A ! B].S2 S4 S6 SHere the relationship was known and we wrote it in terms of action fluxes. The next step is to find out how to identify a relationship when the action fluxes are given. We touch on how to achieve this in the discussion.Discussion Analyzing data setsOur representation in action fluxes provides a tool to identify types of dyadic relationships occurring within potentially large data sets of social interactions. Both collective and dyadic interactions may occur in real social contexts, but our approach applies specifically to the latter. Large data sets can result from any type of online social network or massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), for instance. MMORPGs bring hundreds of thousands of players together to cooperate and compete by forming alliances, trading, fighting, and so on, all the while recording every single action and communication of the players. They are used in quantitative social science, for example by Thurner in the context of the game Pardus [26?8]. Ethnological and anthropological studies can provide rich reports of social interactions occurring in non-artificial settings that could be coded and interpreted with the aid of our categorization. Data sets of dyadic interactions can also be generated by computer simulations such as agent-based models (ABMs) to test specific questions. We offer the sketch of a method to analyze a potentially large data set of dyadic social interactions expressed as action fluxes (“A does X to B”, etc.). Given a data set involving a number of individuals, one needs to consider separately each pair of individuals. For each pair, one shall examine each social action and test into which category of action fluxes it falls, possibly jointly with another social action (in the case of MP and AR). In its second column, Table 5 specifies the patterns of fluxes expected to be observed in each category. Let us stress the following points: ?The patterns of observed fluxes given in Table 5 are not meant as definitions of the.

T’s early journalistic style in terms of the conventions of

T’s early journalistic style in terms of the conventions of non-medical publishing.10 In particular, she is concerned to demonstrate how the relative success of the journal can be ascribed to ALS-8176 web Wakley’s importation of `entertaining formal components from lay periodicals’, most notably sections on society gossip, theatre reviews and chess puzzles, a contrivance which allowed The Lancet to `navigat[e] the space between general and specialist readers’.11 Though notable for its emphasis on style, Pladek’s account is not wholly satisfying; it is unspecific5 M. Bostetter, `The journalism of Thomas Wakley’ in J. H. Wiener (ed.), Innovators and Preachers: The Role of the Editor in Victorian England (London, 1985), 282. 6J. Loudon and I. Loudon, `Medicine, politics and the medical periodical, 1800 ?0′ in W. F. Bynum, S. Lock and R. Porter (eds), Medical Journals and Medical Knowledge: Historical Essays (London, 1992), 62. 7W. F. Bynum and J. C. Wilson, `Periodical knowledge: medical journals and their editors in nineteenth-century Britain’ in Bynum et al., Medical Journals, op. cit., 38. 8For example, see J. Bulcher, `The Cato Street Conspiracy’, The Lancet, 370: Supplement 1 (1 December 2007), 9 ?4; R. Jones, `Thomas Wakley, plagiarism, libel, and the founding ofThe Lancet’, The Lancet, 371:9622 (26 April 2008), 1410?11. In 1996 The Lancet even established an essay prize in Wakley’s name ?see The Lancet, 348:9022 (27 July 1996), 212. 9Loudon and Loudon, `Medicine, politics’, op. cit., 61; D. Harrison, `All The Lancet’s men: reactionary gentleman physicians vs. radical general practitioners in The Lancet, 1823 ?1832′, Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies, V , 2 (Summer 2009), available online at: http://ncgs journal.com/issue52/harrison.htm 10 B. Pladek, `”A variety of tastes”: The Lancet in the early nineteenth-century periodical press’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, LXXXV , 4 (2011), 560?6. 11ibid., 560, 572.MayThe Lancet, libel and English medicineabout exactly what kinds of cultural work these literary devices were intended to perform and does not adequately explain why The Lancet’s circulation continued to rise even when they were discontinued after only two years. Moreover, while she alludes to the subject, she explicitly declines to focus on `the OlmutinibMedChemExpress HM61713, BI 1482694 journal’s engagement with medical politics’ or its resonances with the broader conventions of radical journalism.12 As this article will demonstrate, however, the significance of The Lancet’s stylistic radicalism can only be fully comprehended by situating it within its immediate political context. Rather than viewing it as the template for modern medical journalism, or as anticipating later styles of political and social commentary, it understands The Lancet as the product of an early nineteenth-century radical political heritage, as the Political Register or Black Dwarf of medicine. It seeks to extend and deepen the analytical project initiated by Desmond, Warner and Burney whereby the discourses of medical reform are considered in relation to those which sustained the cause of radical political sovereignty. Drawing upon the work of James Epstein, Kevin Gilmartin and others, it views The Lancet in terms of radical stylistics, demonstrating the extent to which it was framed by the literary conventions of the underground political press.13 It opens with a brief account of Wakley’s initiation into radical circles before considering the early editions of The Lancet, with a particular focus on the.T’s early journalistic style in terms of the conventions of non-medical publishing.10 In particular, she is concerned to demonstrate how the relative success of the journal can be ascribed to Wakley’s importation of `entertaining formal components from lay periodicals’, most notably sections on society gossip, theatre reviews and chess puzzles, a contrivance which allowed The Lancet to `navigat[e] the space between general and specialist readers’.11 Though notable for its emphasis on style, Pladek’s account is not wholly satisfying; it is unspecific5 M. Bostetter, `The journalism of Thomas Wakley’ in J. H. Wiener (ed.), Innovators and Preachers: The Role of the Editor in Victorian England (London, 1985), 282. 6J. Loudon and I. Loudon, `Medicine, politics and the medical periodical, 1800 ?0′ in W. F. Bynum, S. Lock and R. Porter (eds), Medical Journals and Medical Knowledge: Historical Essays (London, 1992), 62. 7W. F. Bynum and J. C. Wilson, `Periodical knowledge: medical journals and their editors in nineteenth-century Britain’ in Bynum et al., Medical Journals, op. cit., 38. 8For example, see J. Bulcher, `The Cato Street Conspiracy’, The Lancet, 370: Supplement 1 (1 December 2007), 9 ?4; R. Jones, `Thomas Wakley, plagiarism, libel, and the founding ofThe Lancet’, The Lancet, 371:9622 (26 April 2008), 1410?11. In 1996 The Lancet even established an essay prize in Wakley’s name ?see The Lancet, 348:9022 (27 July 1996), 212. 9Loudon and Loudon, `Medicine, politics’, op. cit., 61; D. Harrison, `All The Lancet’s men: reactionary gentleman physicians vs. radical general practitioners in The Lancet, 1823 ?1832′, Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies, V , 2 (Summer 2009), available online at: http://ncgs journal.com/issue52/harrison.htm 10 B. Pladek, `”A variety of tastes”: The Lancet in the early nineteenth-century periodical press’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, LXXXV , 4 (2011), 560?6. 11ibid., 560, 572.MayThe Lancet, libel and English medicineabout exactly what kinds of cultural work these literary devices were intended to perform and does not adequately explain why The Lancet’s circulation continued to rise even when they were discontinued after only two years. Moreover, while she alludes to the subject, she explicitly declines to focus on `the journal’s engagement with medical politics’ or its resonances with the broader conventions of radical journalism.12 As this article will demonstrate, however, the significance of The Lancet’s stylistic radicalism can only be fully comprehended by situating it within its immediate political context. Rather than viewing it as the template for modern medical journalism, or as anticipating later styles of political and social commentary, it understands The Lancet as the product of an early nineteenth-century radical political heritage, as the Political Register or Black Dwarf of medicine. It seeks to extend and deepen the analytical project initiated by Desmond, Warner and Burney whereby the discourses of medical reform are considered in relation to those which sustained the cause of radical political sovereignty. Drawing upon the work of James Epstein, Kevin Gilmartin and others, it views The Lancet in terms of radical stylistics, demonstrating the extent to which it was framed by the literary conventions of the underground political press.13 It opens with a brief account of Wakley’s initiation into radical circles before considering the early editions of The Lancet, with a particular focus on the.

Are a useful method for gaining insight into phenomena where little

Are a useful method for gaining insight into phenomena where little is known [44]. When focus group data has been collected from multiple groups and multiple sites, researchers can have increased confidence in the reliability and validity of the findings [45]. The focus groups were guided by following questions. (1) Perceptions of Professional Socialization. (a) What comes to mind when you hear the phrase “professional socialization”? (b) Share memories of your experiences becoming socialized into the role of Licensed Practical Nurse and developing your identity in this role. (c) How is the experience of developing your new role and identity as a AG-221 molecular weight Registered Nurse the same? How is it different? (2) Formal Academic Experiences: Online Classes and Clinical Practicums. (a) Talk about experiences you have had so far in your online university classes where you “felt like” a Registered Nurse and not a Licensed Practical Nurse? Have there been times in your Enasidenib web online4 [54] (page 85) maintained by both moderators during and immediately following the sessions further increased the dependability of our findings. Practical issues such as organizing groups at a time and place to minimize disruption and avoiding power differential dynamics [55] were addressed. The groups were held when participants, who were normally separated by distance, were together in the same city for a required practicum experience. They were held at change of shift in lieu of a post conference. Knowing the power differential between students and teachers, moderators who did not have teaching responsibilities in the Post LPN to BN program were chosen to facilitate the focus groups. Instructors were not present during any of the discussions and had no involvement with the transcript data. Participants were recruited through a Letter of Invitation sent via email by a Research Assistant who was also not involved with the program. Four focus groups were held with 5 to 9 participants each. All the students who were invited chose to participate. We reasoned that this may have been because they were all from out of town and appreciated an opportunity to interact and share their views. Pseudonyms ensured participant confidentiality. Full ethical approval was granted by the university. The following two overarching themes emerged from analyzing the data. First, Post LPN to BN students need little, if any, further legitimation to affirm their identities as “nurse.” Second, practicum interactions with instructors and new clinical experiences are key socializing agents.Nursing Research and Practice They talked about opportunities where demonstrating professional authority in their workplace further established their identity as “nurse”: “Working your first night shift . . . in your new role. The culture of night shift–it’s different.” “The first time I cared for a palliative patient and was there when they passed. Talking with the family. My first job that I had as an LPN, I was alone on the floor as the only official nurse for more than half of my shift. I had the full responsibility of all 60 residents in my care . . . that all happened as an LPN.” From the Post LPN to BN students’ perspective, the notion that socialization into the role of “nurse” would occur for them at this point in their career was insulting: “I almost feel a little bit insulted to think that I would feel any less professional as an LPN than I do as an RN. I feel equally professional in both roles.” “My buddy nurse ac.Are a useful method for gaining insight into phenomena where little is known [44]. When focus group data has been collected from multiple groups and multiple sites, researchers can have increased confidence in the reliability and validity of the findings [45]. The focus groups were guided by following questions. (1) Perceptions of Professional Socialization. (a) What comes to mind when you hear the phrase “professional socialization”? (b) Share memories of your experiences becoming socialized into the role of Licensed Practical Nurse and developing your identity in this role. (c) How is the experience of developing your new role and identity as a Registered Nurse the same? How is it different? (2) Formal Academic Experiences: Online Classes and Clinical Practicums. (a) Talk about experiences you have had so far in your online university classes where you “felt like” a Registered Nurse and not a Licensed Practical Nurse? Have there been times in your online4 [54] (page 85) maintained by both moderators during and immediately following the sessions further increased the dependability of our findings. Practical issues such as organizing groups at a time and place to minimize disruption and avoiding power differential dynamics [55] were addressed. The groups were held when participants, who were normally separated by distance, were together in the same city for a required practicum experience. They were held at change of shift in lieu of a post conference. Knowing the power differential between students and teachers, moderators who did not have teaching responsibilities in the Post LPN to BN program were chosen to facilitate the focus groups. Instructors were not present during any of the discussions and had no involvement with the transcript data. Participants were recruited through a Letter of Invitation sent via email by a Research Assistant who was also not involved with the program. Four focus groups were held with 5 to 9 participants each. All the students who were invited chose to participate. We reasoned that this may have been because they were all from out of town and appreciated an opportunity to interact and share their views. Pseudonyms ensured participant confidentiality. Full ethical approval was granted by the university. The following two overarching themes emerged from analyzing the data. First, Post LPN to BN students need little, if any, further legitimation to affirm their identities as “nurse.” Second, practicum interactions with instructors and new clinical experiences are key socializing agents.Nursing Research and Practice They talked about opportunities where demonstrating professional authority in their workplace further established their identity as “nurse”: “Working your first night shift . . . in your new role. The culture of night shift–it’s different.” “The first time I cared for a palliative patient and was there when they passed. Talking with the family. My first job that I had as an LPN, I was alone on the floor as the only official nurse for more than half of my shift. I had the full responsibility of all 60 residents in my care . . . that all happened as an LPN.” From the Post LPN to BN students’ perspective, the notion that socialization into the role of “nurse” would occur for them at this point in their career was insulting: “I almost feel a little bit insulted to think that I would feel any less professional as an LPN than I do as an RN. I feel equally professional in both roles.” “My buddy nurse ac.

, a runner who demonstrates considerably less than 45?of knee flexion may

, a runner who demonstrates considerably less than 45?of knee flexion may suggest OPC-8212 molecular weight SB856553 side effects reduced shock absorption, and intervention may be warranted. Some data exist suggesting that lower knee flexion (<40? may be associated with certain subgroups of patients with patellofemoral pain.22 Knee stiffness, a variable that includes both reduced knee flexion and/or increased knee flexion moment during stance phase, may be associated with tibial stress fractures.23 Hip Extension During Late Stance Reduced hip extension during late stance is a common observation in the recreational runner (Fig. 6). It is traditionally believed that lack of hip extension may be associated with reduced flexibility of the iliopsoas muscle. However, the optimal amount of hip extension during running remains elusive. It is possible that the required amount of hip extension is not the same for each runner, but related to other characteristics of their running form. For example, a fairly slow runner may have a very compact stride, demonstrate approximately 10?of peakAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptPhys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 February 01.SouzaPagehip extension and not require any intervention. However, a different runner, with a long stride and perhaps a faster pace, may also have approximately 10?of hip extension, but also concurrently demonstrate a significant overstride pattern (landing with the foot out in front of the center of mass) with higher impact loading and braking forces. The latter runner may require stride modification or improved hip extension during running to modify these forces that could contribute to injury. Commonly observed compensations for persons with reduced hip extension include (1) increased lumbar spine extension, (2) bounding, a strategy to increase float time to increase overall stride length in the absence of adequate hip extension, (3) increased overstriding, including excessive reaching during initial contact as a strategy to increase stride length, and (4) increased cadence to increase running speed in the presence of a limited hip extension. Trunk LeanAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptOverstridingTrunk lean is a variable that has received little attention in the scientific literature. However, this is not the case in the popular running non eer-reviewed literature. Many running styles, including ChiRunning, pose running, and even barefoot running have included cues for novice runners to increase trunk lean. A focus on leaning “from the ankles,” rather than increasing hip flexion to achieve the trunk lean, seems to be a priority for some styles. Many running experts suggest that trunk lean is a key component to correct running posture. However, very little has been done on the research side of this issue. A recent article by Teng and Powers24 demonstrated that a small increase in trunk lean ( 7? resulted in a significant lowering of the stress across the patellofemoral joint without a significant increase in ankle demand, suggesting that this strategy may be important for runners with patellofemoral pain. The overall findings were that reduced trunk flexion (more upright posture) was associated with greater knee loads. In contrast, increased trunk flexion shifted demand away from the knee joint, and to the hip and ankle (although the latter was not statistically higher).25 However, the authors warn that this study was performed in healthy subj., a runner who demonstrates considerably less than 45?of knee flexion may suggest reduced shock absorption, and intervention may be warranted. Some data exist suggesting that lower knee flexion (<40? may be associated with certain subgroups of patients with patellofemoral pain.22 Knee stiffness, a variable that includes both reduced knee flexion and/or increased knee flexion moment during stance phase, may be associated with tibial stress fractures.23 Hip Extension During Late Stance Reduced hip extension during late stance is a common observation in the recreational runner (Fig. 6). It is traditionally believed that lack of hip extension may be associated with reduced flexibility of the iliopsoas muscle. However, the optimal amount of hip extension during running remains elusive. It is possible that the required amount of hip extension is not the same for each runner, but related to other characteristics of their running form. For example, a fairly slow runner may have a very compact stride, demonstrate approximately 10?of peakAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptPhys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 February 01.SouzaPagehip extension and not require any intervention. However, a different runner, with a long stride and perhaps a faster pace, may also have approximately 10?of hip extension, but also concurrently demonstrate a significant overstride pattern (landing with the foot out in front of the center of mass) with higher impact loading and braking forces. The latter runner may require stride modification or improved hip extension during running to modify these forces that could contribute to injury. Commonly observed compensations for persons with reduced hip extension include (1) increased lumbar spine extension, (2) bounding, a strategy to increase float time to increase overall stride length in the absence of adequate hip extension, (3) increased overstriding, including excessive reaching during initial contact as a strategy to increase stride length, and (4) increased cadence to increase running speed in the presence of a limited hip extension. Trunk LeanAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptOverstridingTrunk lean is a variable that has received little attention in the scientific literature. However, this is not the case in the popular running non eer-reviewed literature. Many running styles, including ChiRunning, pose running, and even barefoot running have included cues for novice runners to increase trunk lean. A focus on leaning “from the ankles,” rather than increasing hip flexion to achieve the trunk lean, seems to be a priority for some styles. Many running experts suggest that trunk lean is a key component to correct running posture. However, very little has been done on the research side of this issue. A recent article by Teng and Powers24 demonstrated that a small increase in trunk lean ( 7? resulted in a significant lowering of the stress across the patellofemoral joint without a significant increase in ankle demand, suggesting that this strategy may be important for runners with patellofemoral pain. The overall findings were that reduced trunk flexion (more upright posture) was associated with greater knee loads. In contrast, increased trunk flexion shifted demand away from the knee joint, and to the hip and ankle (although the latter was not statistically higher).25 However, the authors warn that this study was performed in healthy subj.

Ampal CA1 subfield in individuals with MCI compared to NCI (Fig.

Ampal CA1 subfield in individuals with MCI POR-8 site compared to NCI (Fig. 4), which correlated with the subject’s Mini-Mental State Exam score (MMSE), but not with NFT Braak stage or apolipoprotein E (ApoE) status, a genetic risk factor for AD (Scheff et al., 2006). Unlike the outer molecular layer, CA1 receives input from the Schaffer collaterals arising from CA3 and not from the glutamatergic neurons of the entorhinal cortex, suggesting differential responses to synapse loss within the hippocampus based upon afferent innervation or chemical phenotype, some of which precipitate BMS-214662 side effects synaptic reorganization. A recent report characterized changes in the dendritic branching of the basilar tree of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. In this study, formalin-fixed tissue autopsy obtained from University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center who died with a clinical diagnosis of NCI, MCI or AD was prepared for Golgi impregnation (Fig. 5). Camera lucida drawings of the basilar tree of randomly selected CA1 neurons were analyzed for alterations in dendritic arbor amount, distribution and complexity (Mervis et al., 2013). Quantitation showed a significant increase in dendritic length (18 ) and complexity (23 ) in CA1 neurons in MCI compared to NCI. Conversely, there was a significant reduction in branch length (-39 ) and arbor complexity (-25 ) during the progression from MCI to AD (Fig. 5). These findings suggest that the observed increase in CA1 dendritic parameters from NCI to MCI may be another example of a neuroplastic compensatory response to a loss of afferent input early in the course of the disease, which is not maintained as the disease progresses. The role that the reported reduction in total synapse number plays in CA1 neuroplasticity remains unknown. However, these examples of early CA1 neural reorganization may represent a viable window for potential therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring or maintaining hippocampal function during the transition from MCI to AD. Future studies should determine whether alterations in specific synapse subtypes (i.e., perforated vs. non-perforated) are differentially affected and their relation to cognitive decline and brain pathology during the onset of AD. Interestingly, the size of the synaptic contacts was found to be substantially larger in AD cortex compared to non-demented aged controls (Scheff et al., 1990), which was suggested to be part of a compensatory mechanism found in regions of the neocortex and hippocampus (see review Scheff and Price, 2006). These investigators found that as the number of synapses declined in a given region, the size of the residualAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptNeuroscience. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 September 12.Mufson et al.Pagesynapses increased. This synaptic compensatory response was also observed early in the course of the AD (DeKosky and Scheff, 1990). Neuronal structural alterations may not be the only factor(s) contributing to cognitive decline and hippocampal plasticity in MCI. For example, studies have reported significant reductions in synaptic vesicle trafficking-related genes in the AD brain, which interrupt the efficacy of normal synaptic transmission (Yao et al., 2003; Murphy et al., 2003; Kennedy et al., 2005). Counts et al. (2014) examined progressive changes in the expression classes of synaptic gene within single CA1 neurons in subjects who died with a clinical diagnosis of NCI, MCI or moderate AD obtain.Ampal CA1 subfield in individuals with MCI compared to NCI (Fig. 4), which correlated with the subject’s Mini-Mental State Exam score (MMSE), but not with NFT Braak stage or apolipoprotein E (ApoE) status, a genetic risk factor for AD (Scheff et al., 2006). Unlike the outer molecular layer, CA1 receives input from the Schaffer collaterals arising from CA3 and not from the glutamatergic neurons of the entorhinal cortex, suggesting differential responses to synapse loss within the hippocampus based upon afferent innervation or chemical phenotype, some of which precipitate synaptic reorganization. A recent report characterized changes in the dendritic branching of the basilar tree of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. In this study, formalin-fixed tissue autopsy obtained from University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center who died with a clinical diagnosis of NCI, MCI or AD was prepared for Golgi impregnation (Fig. 5). Camera lucida drawings of the basilar tree of randomly selected CA1 neurons were analyzed for alterations in dendritic arbor amount, distribution and complexity (Mervis et al., 2013). Quantitation showed a significant increase in dendritic length (18 ) and complexity (23 ) in CA1 neurons in MCI compared to NCI. Conversely, there was a significant reduction in branch length (-39 ) and arbor complexity (-25 ) during the progression from MCI to AD (Fig. 5). These findings suggest that the observed increase in CA1 dendritic parameters from NCI to MCI may be another example of a neuroplastic compensatory response to a loss of afferent input early in the course of the disease, which is not maintained as the disease progresses. The role that the reported reduction in total synapse number plays in CA1 neuroplasticity remains unknown. However, these examples of early CA1 neural reorganization may represent a viable window for potential therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring or maintaining hippocampal function during the transition from MCI to AD. Future studies should determine whether alterations in specific synapse subtypes (i.e., perforated vs. non-perforated) are differentially affected and their relation to cognitive decline and brain pathology during the onset of AD. Interestingly, the size of the synaptic contacts was found to be substantially larger in AD cortex compared to non-demented aged controls (Scheff et al., 1990), which was suggested to be part of a compensatory mechanism found in regions of the neocortex and hippocampus (see review Scheff and Price, 2006). These investigators found that as the number of synapses declined in a given region, the size of the residualAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptNeuroscience. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 September 12.Mufson et al.Pagesynapses increased. This synaptic compensatory response was also observed early in the course of the AD (DeKosky and Scheff, 1990). Neuronal structural alterations may not be the only factor(s) contributing to cognitive decline and hippocampal plasticity in MCI. For example, studies have reported significant reductions in synaptic vesicle trafficking-related genes in the AD brain, which interrupt the efficacy of normal synaptic transmission (Yao et al., 2003; Murphy et al., 2003; Kennedy et al., 2005). Counts et al. (2014) examined progressive changes in the expression classes of synaptic gene within single CA1 neurons in subjects who died with a clinical diagnosis of NCI, MCI or moderate AD obtain.

Monly used and widely available OTC medications and nutritional supplements were

Monly used and widely available OTC medications and nutritional supplements were safe and posed no short- or long-term threat to their health. Many used such products to improve their Acadesine chemical information running performance, yet their risk normalized or neutralized by their presence at running expos, in running publications and at vitamin retail stores. Well aware that some substances–EPO, anabolic steroids, HGH–are banned and may be dangerous to health, these runners took for granted the surveillance and safety of products they could procure legally, under the belief that is something was not banned it would be safe. This belief makes runners vulnerable to tainted or dangerous products that are freely available and not considered harmful, even though non-elite athletes routinely feel they make correct decisions and engaging in adequate self-surveillance that is required in contemporary neoliberal citizenship (Rose 1999). As such, a product recommended as an effective and legal substance by another runner or by a retail sales clerk may contain substances that are either banned by agencies such as WADA and/or may pose a serious health risk. The recent controversy over the supplement ingredient DMAA illustrates availability cannot be substituted for safety.FCCP web NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptSurveill Soc. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2014 November 04.HenningPageTogether, these perceptions and knowledge gaps result in a blind spot in the internalized anti-doping gaze. Runners do the work of self-surveillance believing they are acting as good citizens by conforming to anti-doping regulations and following expert advice on how to be healthy, as far as they understand these rules and recommendations. With regard to nutritional supplements, this self-surveillance blind spot can have major negative health repercussions. WADA and its affiliates claim athlete health is a top priority, yet its policies and methods confuse non-elite runners and lull them into a false sense of security. The nonelites in this research engaged in self-surveillance and did seek to conform to the clean ideal by avoiding what they understood to be prohibited or dangerous substances. However, their knowledge of anti-doping regulations was inadequate for avoiding all but the most commonly discussed prohibited enhancement products. Relying on their incomplete and often incorrect understandings of which substances are potentially harmful, these runners may wrongly presume they are avoiding harmful PEDs by focusing their attention on supplements that are commonly found in drug stores and nutritional supplement shops. This finding demonstrates how the quest to eradicate doping in sports using the surveillancebased system of regulations and banned substances seem to work against the underlying goals of anti-doping agencies in non-elite sports populations.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsThe author was supported by NIDA grant (T32 DA007233); points of view are the author’s alone.
NIH Public AccessAuthor ManuscriptJ Res Adolesc. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 June 01.Published in final edited form as: J Res Adolesc. 2014 June 1; 24(2): 235?51. doi:10.1111/jora.12124.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptSerious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and ViolenceRachel A. Gordon, University of Illinois at Chi.Monly used and widely available OTC medications and nutritional supplements were safe and posed no short- or long-term threat to their health. Many used such products to improve their running performance, yet their risk normalized or neutralized by their presence at running expos, in running publications and at vitamin retail stores. Well aware that some substances–EPO, anabolic steroids, HGH–are banned and may be dangerous to health, these runners took for granted the surveillance and safety of products they could procure legally, under the belief that is something was not banned it would be safe. This belief makes runners vulnerable to tainted or dangerous products that are freely available and not considered harmful, even though non-elite athletes routinely feel they make correct decisions and engaging in adequate self-surveillance that is required in contemporary neoliberal citizenship (Rose 1999). As such, a product recommended as an effective and legal substance by another runner or by a retail sales clerk may contain substances that are either banned by agencies such as WADA and/or may pose a serious health risk. The recent controversy over the supplement ingredient DMAA illustrates availability cannot be substituted for safety.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptSurveill Soc. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2014 November 04.HenningPageTogether, these perceptions and knowledge gaps result in a blind spot in the internalized anti-doping gaze. Runners do the work of self-surveillance believing they are acting as good citizens by conforming to anti-doping regulations and following expert advice on how to be healthy, as far as they understand these rules and recommendations. With regard to nutritional supplements, this self-surveillance blind spot can have major negative health repercussions. WADA and its affiliates claim athlete health is a top priority, yet its policies and methods confuse non-elite runners and lull them into a false sense of security. The nonelites in this research engaged in self-surveillance and did seek to conform to the clean ideal by avoiding what they understood to be prohibited or dangerous substances. However, their knowledge of anti-doping regulations was inadequate for avoiding all but the most commonly discussed prohibited enhancement products. Relying on their incomplete and often incorrect understandings of which substances are potentially harmful, these runners may wrongly presume they are avoiding harmful PEDs by focusing their attention on supplements that are commonly found in drug stores and nutritional supplement shops. This finding demonstrates how the quest to eradicate doping in sports using the surveillancebased system of regulations and banned substances seem to work against the underlying goals of anti-doping agencies in non-elite sports populations.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsThe author was supported by NIDA grant (T32 DA007233); points of view are the author’s alone.
NIH Public AccessAuthor ManuscriptJ Res Adolesc. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 June 01.Published in final edited form as: J Res Adolesc. 2014 June 1; 24(2): 235?51. doi:10.1111/jora.12124.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptSerious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and ViolenceRachel A. Gordon, University of Illinois at Chi.

Deration when interpreting experimental findings. (i) Identification of a mutation in

Deration when interpreting experimental findings. (i) Identification of a mutation in a clonal population does not indicate causality Any mutation in a cell that undergoes clonal expansion will be passed onto progeny, irrespective of functional status (Fig. 3A,B). Given the size of the genome, more mutations carried by a HS-173 msds neoplastic clone will be passengers than drivers [27, 29, 30]. To demonstrate driver status, supporting functional studies and/or repeated observations of a mutated loci in neoplastic clones from independent individuals are needed. (ii) Mutational marking of a clone is stochastic and not guaranteed A clone may exist and not be detected if none of the genomic sites being screened carry a unique mutation permitting it to be distinguished from the germline (Fig. 3C). The more sites examined, the higher the probability of detection becomes. Restricting a marker panel to suspected driver sites precludes detection of pathological clones driven by unknown factors. (iii) Elevated mutation rates facilitate clone detection but are not an absolute AZD-8835 site requirement Screening of mutational hotspots makes it practical with conventional technologies to have a reasonable probability of detecting a clone by random passenger mutations. Clones derived from a mutator lineage or cells residing in a highly mutagenic environment should be more densely marked with identifiable passengers (Fig. 3D), potentially reducing the number of markers needing to be interrogated to identify them. Emerging high-throughput sequencing technologies will eventually obviate the need to restrict screening to a fraction of the genome. (iv) Identification of one or more clonal mutations is not proof of genetic instability in the absence of collateral information Detection of a mutation requires clonal expansion with most traditional methods of aggregate DNA analysis. The probability of identifying clonal mutations in an expanded population is a function of the number of sites screened, the mutability of these sites and the number of cell divisions having occurred in the lineage leading up to the final expansion. Particularly when considering hotspots, mutations will be occasionally detectable in any clonally-derived population at a statistically definable frequency. Because mutations are not routinely encountered in normal tissues, it is tempting to explain their presence in preneoplastic populations as the result of “genetic instability” (an elevated mutation rate). However, the phenomenon is more precisely explained by the fact that expansion does not routinely occur in most normal tissues. An elevated mutation rate itself will have no observable effect on clonal mutation frequency in the absence of expansion (Fig. 3E). To determine mutation rate from a clonal mutation frequency it is necessary to (A) know that the population being assessed is clonal and (B) have some metric of the number of cell divisions that occurred in the period between the zygote and the founding of the final clonalSemin Cancer Biol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 October 15.Salk and HorwitzPageoutgrowth. To infer that a rate is elevated, it is also necessary to know the normal in vivo mutation rate, which is, in turn, impossible to measure by this approach given that large clonal expansions do not routinely occur in normal adult tissue. Considering these complexities, the lack of resolution as to whether mutation rates are elevated in cancer is not surprising [1,8?1]. (v) Detectabili.Deration when interpreting experimental findings. (i) Identification of a mutation in a clonal population does not indicate causality Any mutation in a cell that undergoes clonal expansion will be passed onto progeny, irrespective of functional status (Fig. 3A,B). Given the size of the genome, more mutations carried by a neoplastic clone will be passengers than drivers [27, 29, 30]. To demonstrate driver status, supporting functional studies and/or repeated observations of a mutated loci in neoplastic clones from independent individuals are needed. (ii) Mutational marking of a clone is stochastic and not guaranteed A clone may exist and not be detected if none of the genomic sites being screened carry a unique mutation permitting it to be distinguished from the germline (Fig. 3C). The more sites examined, the higher the probability of detection becomes. Restricting a marker panel to suspected driver sites precludes detection of pathological clones driven by unknown factors. (iii) Elevated mutation rates facilitate clone detection but are not an absolute requirement Screening of mutational hotspots makes it practical with conventional technologies to have a reasonable probability of detecting a clone by random passenger mutations. Clones derived from a mutator lineage or cells residing in a highly mutagenic environment should be more densely marked with identifiable passengers (Fig. 3D), potentially reducing the number of markers needing to be interrogated to identify them. Emerging high-throughput sequencing technologies will eventually obviate the need to restrict screening to a fraction of the genome. (iv) Identification of one or more clonal mutations is not proof of genetic instability in the absence of collateral information Detection of a mutation requires clonal expansion with most traditional methods of aggregate DNA analysis. The probability of identifying clonal mutations in an expanded population is a function of the number of sites screened, the mutability of these sites and the number of cell divisions having occurred in the lineage leading up to the final expansion. Particularly when considering hotspots, mutations will be occasionally detectable in any clonally-derived population at a statistically definable frequency. Because mutations are not routinely encountered in normal tissues, it is tempting to explain their presence in preneoplastic populations as the result of “genetic instability” (an elevated mutation rate). However, the phenomenon is more precisely explained by the fact that expansion does not routinely occur in most normal tissues. An elevated mutation rate itself will have no observable effect on clonal mutation frequency in the absence of expansion (Fig. 3E). To determine mutation rate from a clonal mutation frequency it is necessary to (A) know that the population being assessed is clonal and (B) have some metric of the number of cell divisions that occurred in the period between the zygote and the founding of the final clonalSemin Cancer Biol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 October 15.Salk and HorwitzPageoutgrowth. To infer that a rate is elevated, it is also necessary to know the normal in vivo mutation rate, which is, in turn, impossible to measure by this approach given that large clonal expansions do not routinely occur in normal adult tissue. Considering these complexities, the lack of resolution as to whether mutation rates are elevated in cancer is not surprising [1,8?1]. (v) Detectabili.

Ez-Triana, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/84DCE9B2-79E9-

Ez-Triana, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/84DCE9B2-79E9-47CF-8CC2-8DA9F53F3AD1 http://species-id.net/wiki/Apanteles_franciscopizarroi Figs. 74 Type locality. COSTA RICA, Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Santa Rosa, Bosque Humedo, 290m, 10.85145, -85.60801. Holotype. in CNC. Specimen labels: 1. DHJPAR0013119. 2. 17 Jan. 2000, Bosque Humedo Trap. Description. Female. Body color: body mostly dark except for some sternites which may be pale. Antenna color: scape, pedicel, and flagellum dark. Coxae color (pro-, meso-, metacoxa): pale, pale, dark. Femora color (pro-, meso-, metafemur): pale, pale, mostly pale but posterior 0.2 or less dark. Tibiae color (pro-, meso-, metatibia): pale, pale, anteriorly pale/posteriorly dark. Tegula and humeral complex color: both pale. Pterostigma color: dark. Fore wing veins color: partially pigmented (a few veins may be dark but most are pale). Antenna length/body length: antenna about as long as body (head to apex of metasoma); if slightly shorter, at least extending beyond Linaprazan side effects anterior 0.7 metasoma length. Body in lateral view: not distinctly flattened dorso entrally. Body length (head to apex of metasoma): 2.1?.2 mm. Fore wing length: 2.3?.4 mm. Ocular cellar line/posterior ocellus diameter: 2.0?.2. In-Jose L. Fernandez-Triana et al. / ZooKeys 383: 1?65 (2014)terocellar distance/posterior ocellus diameter: 1.7?.9. Antennal flagellomerus 2 length/width: 2.6?.8. Antennal flagellomerus 14 length/width: 1.4?.6. Length of flagellomerus 2/length of flagellomerus 14: 1.7?.9. Tarsal claws: with single basal spine ike seta. Metafemur length/width: 3.4?.5. Metatibia inner spur length/ metabasitarsus length: 0.4?.5. Anteromesoscutum: mostly with deep, dense punctures (separated by less than 2.0 ?its maximum diameter). Mesoscutellar disc: with a few sparse punctures. Number of pits in scutoscutellar sulcus: 11 or 12. Maximum height of mesoscutellum lunules/maximum height of lateral face of mesoscutellum: 0.2?.3. Propodeum areola: completely defined by carinae, including transverse carina extending to spiracle. Propodeum background sculpture: partly sculptured, especially on anterior 0.5. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin: 2.0?.2. Mediotergite 1 shape: mostly parallel ided for 0.5?.7 of its length, then narrowing posteriorly so mediotergite anterior width >1.1 ?posterior width. Mediotergite 1 sculpture: mostly sculptured, excavated area centrally with transverse striation inside and/or a polished knob centrally on posterior Mikamycin IAMedChemExpress Pristinamycin IA margin of mediotergite. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.6?.9. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: with some sculpture, mostly near posterior margin. Outer margin of hypopygium: with a wide, medially folded, transparent, semi esclerotized area; usually with 4 or more pleats. Ovipositor thickness: about same width throughout its length. Ovipositor sheaths length/metatibial length: 1.0?.1. Length of fore wing veins r/2RS: 1.1?.3. Length of fore wing veins 2RS/2M: 1.4?.6. Length of fore wing veins 2M/(RS+M)b: 1.1?1.3. Pterostigma length/width: 3.1?.5. Point of insertion of vein r in pterostigma: about half way point length of pterostigma. Angle of vein r with fore wing anterior margin: more or less perpendicular to fore wing margin. Shape of junction of veins r and 2RS in fore wing: distinctly but not strongly angled. Male. Unknown. Molecular data. Sequences in BOLD: 2, barcode compliant sequences: 2. Biology/ecology. Malaise-trapped. Distribution. Costa Rica, ACG. Etymology. We dedicate this spe.Ez-Triana, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/84DCE9B2-79E9-47CF-8CC2-8DA9F53F3AD1 http://species-id.net/wiki/Apanteles_franciscopizarroi Figs. 74 Type locality. COSTA RICA, Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Santa Rosa, Bosque Humedo, 290m, 10.85145, -85.60801. Holotype. in CNC. Specimen labels: 1. DHJPAR0013119. 2. 17 Jan. 2000, Bosque Humedo Trap. Description. Female. Body color: body mostly dark except for some sternites which may be pale. Antenna color: scape, pedicel, and flagellum dark. Coxae color (pro-, meso-, metacoxa): pale, pale, dark. Femora color (pro-, meso-, metafemur): pale, pale, mostly pale but posterior 0.2 or less dark. Tibiae color (pro-, meso-, metatibia): pale, pale, anteriorly pale/posteriorly dark. Tegula and humeral complex color: both pale. Pterostigma color: dark. Fore wing veins color: partially pigmented (a few veins may be dark but most are pale). Antenna length/body length: antenna about as long as body (head to apex of metasoma); if slightly shorter, at least extending beyond anterior 0.7 metasoma length. Body in lateral view: not distinctly flattened dorso entrally. Body length (head to apex of metasoma): 2.1?.2 mm. Fore wing length: 2.3?.4 mm. Ocular cellar line/posterior ocellus diameter: 2.0?.2. In-Jose L. Fernandez-Triana et al. / ZooKeys 383: 1?65 (2014)terocellar distance/posterior ocellus diameter: 1.7?.9. Antennal flagellomerus 2 length/width: 2.6?.8. Antennal flagellomerus 14 length/width: 1.4?.6. Length of flagellomerus 2/length of flagellomerus 14: 1.7?.9. Tarsal claws: with single basal spine ike seta. Metafemur length/width: 3.4?.5. Metatibia inner spur length/ metabasitarsus length: 0.4?.5. Anteromesoscutum: mostly with deep, dense punctures (separated by less than 2.0 ?its maximum diameter). Mesoscutellar disc: with a few sparse punctures. Number of pits in scutoscutellar sulcus: 11 or 12. Maximum height of mesoscutellum lunules/maximum height of lateral face of mesoscutellum: 0.2?.3. Propodeum areola: completely defined by carinae, including transverse carina extending to spiracle. Propodeum background sculpture: partly sculptured, especially on anterior 0.5. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin: 2.0?.2. Mediotergite 1 shape: mostly parallel ided for 0.5?.7 of its length, then narrowing posteriorly so mediotergite anterior width >1.1 ?posterior width. Mediotergite 1 sculpture: mostly sculptured, excavated area centrally with transverse striation inside and/or a polished knob centrally on posterior margin of mediotergite. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.6?.9. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: with some sculpture, mostly near posterior margin. Outer margin of hypopygium: with a wide, medially folded, transparent, semi esclerotized area; usually with 4 or more pleats. Ovipositor thickness: about same width throughout its length. Ovipositor sheaths length/metatibial length: 1.0?.1. Length of fore wing veins r/2RS: 1.1?.3. Length of fore wing veins 2RS/2M: 1.4?.6. Length of fore wing veins 2M/(RS+M)b: 1.1?1.3. Pterostigma length/width: 3.1?.5. Point of insertion of vein r in pterostigma: about half way point length of pterostigma. Angle of vein r with fore wing anterior margin: more or less perpendicular to fore wing margin. Shape of junction of veins r and 2RS in fore wing: distinctly but not strongly angled. Male. Unknown. Molecular data. Sequences in BOLD: 2, barcode compliant sequences: 2. Biology/ecology. Malaise-trapped. Distribution. Costa Rica, ACG. Etymology. We dedicate this spe.

(10). These impacts pose significant challenges to the continued provisioning of ecosystem

(10). These impacts pose significant challenges to the continued provisioning of ecosystem services from the ocean: challenges that may seem overwhelming now, but even more so in light of the difficulties in addressing the complex drivers and reversing trends. In short, threats to ocean life and the provision of vital ecosystem services are unquestionably serious and pressures on ocean resources are escalating. Glimmers of Hope for Sustainable Use of the Ocean Despite these daunting challenges, there is reason for cautious hope. Around the globe, many positive changes are underway: awareness, attitudes, and social norms are changing; AvasimibeMedChemExpress PD-148515 economic incentives are shifting; efforts to educate consumers are increasing; new policies are leading to stronger mandates and more effective governance, compliance, and enforcement; and practices are GS-4059 chemical information changing with the development of better technologies, new products, and business strategies that reflect the circular economy (11), greater engagement of scientists, and improved understanding of trade-offs. As a result, effective models for change based in naturalThe grand challenge for humanity is to meet the basic needs of people in an equitable manner today while simultaneously restoring and maintaining ecosystem functioning for future generations. We must do so in the face of growing numbers of people and the concomitant need for resources, and with environmental changes, such as climate change, already underway. The ocean is integral to this global mission. Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide a range of critical ecosystem services that people depend upon, such as food, oxygen, climate regulation, control of pests, protection from storm surges, recreational opportunities, and cultural value (1, 2). The ocean is home to rich biodiversity and plays key roles in many global processes, from primary production to nutrient cycling to climate and weather (3). Ocean-based activities and livelihoods are both enabled by and affect complex interactions among ecological, social, and economic systems. The global market value of marine and coastal resources and industries is estimated at 3 trillion per year (4). Over 3 billion people depend upon the oceans to provide their primary source of protein, and marine fisheries directly or indirectly employ over 200 million people (4). Other benefits, such as cultural or inspirational values, are harder towww.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.This article arises from the 2016 Annual Sackler Lecture, “Enough with the doom and gloom! Holistic approaches bring hope for people and the ocean,” presented by Jane Lubchenco on March 14, at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC. The lecture was part of the Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium of the National Academy of Sciences, “Coupled Human and Environmental Systems,” held March 14?5. The complete program and video recordings of most presentations are available on the NAS website at www.nasonline.org/Coupled_Human_and_Environmental_Systems. Author contributions: J.L. and S.A.L. designed research; J.L., E.B.C.-C., J.N.R., and S.A.L. performed research; and J.L., E.B.C.-C., J.N.R., and S.A.L. wrote the paper. The authors declare no conflict of interest. This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. A.P.G. is a Guest Editor invited by the Editorial Board.To whom correspondence should be addressed. Email: [email protected] | December 20, 2016 | vol. 113 | no. 51 | 14507?ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCESSUSTAINABILITY SCIENCEquantify.(10). These impacts pose significant challenges to the continued provisioning of ecosystem services from the ocean: challenges that may seem overwhelming now, but even more so in light of the difficulties in addressing the complex drivers and reversing trends. In short, threats to ocean life and the provision of vital ecosystem services are unquestionably serious and pressures on ocean resources are escalating. Glimmers of Hope for Sustainable Use of the Ocean Despite these daunting challenges, there is reason for cautious hope. Around the globe, many positive changes are underway: awareness, attitudes, and social norms are changing; economic incentives are shifting; efforts to educate consumers are increasing; new policies are leading to stronger mandates and more effective governance, compliance, and enforcement; and practices are changing with the development of better technologies, new products, and business strategies that reflect the circular economy (11), greater engagement of scientists, and improved understanding of trade-offs. As a result, effective models for change based in naturalThe grand challenge for humanity is to meet the basic needs of people in an equitable manner today while simultaneously restoring and maintaining ecosystem functioning for future generations. We must do so in the face of growing numbers of people and the concomitant need for resources, and with environmental changes, such as climate change, already underway. The ocean is integral to this global mission. Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide a range of critical ecosystem services that people depend upon, such as food, oxygen, climate regulation, control of pests, protection from storm surges, recreational opportunities, and cultural value (1, 2). The ocean is home to rich biodiversity and plays key roles in many global processes, from primary production to nutrient cycling to climate and weather (3). Ocean-based activities and livelihoods are both enabled by and affect complex interactions among ecological, social, and economic systems. The global market value of marine and coastal resources and industries is estimated at 3 trillion per year (4). Over 3 billion people depend upon the oceans to provide their primary source of protein, and marine fisheries directly or indirectly employ over 200 million people (4). Other benefits, such as cultural or inspirational values, are harder towww.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.This article arises from the 2016 Annual Sackler Lecture, “Enough with the doom and gloom! Holistic approaches bring hope for people and the ocean,” presented by Jane Lubchenco on March 14, at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC. The lecture was part of the Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium of the National Academy of Sciences, “Coupled Human and Environmental Systems,” held March 14?5. The complete program and video recordings of most presentations are available on the NAS website at www.nasonline.org/Coupled_Human_and_Environmental_Systems. Author contributions: J.L. and S.A.L. designed research; J.L., E.B.C.-C., J.N.R., and S.A.L. performed research; and J.L., E.B.C.-C., J.N.R., and S.A.L. wrote the paper. The authors declare no conflict of interest. This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. A.P.G. is a Guest Editor invited by the Editorial Board.To whom correspondence should be addressed. Email: [email protected] | December 20, 2016 | vol. 113 | no. 51 | 14507?ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCESSUSTAINABILITY SCIENCEquantify.