(10). These impacts pose significant challenges to the continued provisioning of ecosystem

(10). These impacts pose significant challenges to the continued provisioning of ecosystem services from the ocean: challenges that may seem overwhelming now, but even more so in light of the difficulties in addressing the complex drivers and reversing trends. In short, threats to ocean life and the provision of vital ecosystem services are unquestionably serious and pressures on ocean resources are escalating. Glimmers of Hope for Sustainable Use of the Ocean Despite these daunting challenges, there is reason for cautious hope. Around the globe, many positive Decumbin biological activity changes are underway: awareness, attitudes, and social norms are changing; economic incentives are shifting; efforts to educate consumers are increasing; new policies are leading to stronger mandates and more effective governance, compliance, and enforcement; and practices are changing with the development of better technologies, new products, and business strategies that reflect the circular economy (11), greater engagement of scientists, and improved understanding of trade-offs. As a result, effective models for change based in naturalThe grand challenge for humanity is to meet the basic needs of Avasimibe cost people in an equitable manner today while simultaneously restoring and maintaining ecosystem functioning for future generations. We must do so in the face of growing numbers of people and the concomitant need for resources, and with environmental changes, such as climate change, already underway. The ocean is integral to this global mission. Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide a range of critical ecosystem services that people depend upon, such as food, oxygen, climate regulation, control of pests, protection from storm surges, recreational opportunities, and cultural value (1, 2). The ocean is home to rich biodiversity and plays key roles in many global processes, from primary production to nutrient cycling to climate and weather (3). Ocean-based activities and livelihoods are both enabled by and affect complex interactions among ecological, social, and economic systems. The global market value of marine and coastal resources and industries is estimated at 3 trillion per year (4). Over 3 billion people depend upon the oceans to provide their primary source of protein, and marine fisheries directly or indirectly employ over 200 million people (4). Other benefits, such as cultural or inspirational values, are harder towww.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.This article arises from the 2016 Annual Sackler Lecture, “Enough with the doom and gloom! Holistic approaches bring hope for people and the ocean,” presented by Jane Lubchenco on March 14, at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC. The lecture was part of the Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium of the National Academy of Sciences, “Coupled Human and Environmental Systems,” held March 14?5. The complete program and video recordings of most presentations are available on the NAS website at www.nasonline.org/Coupled_Human_and_Environmental_Systems. Author contributions: J.L. and S.A.L. designed research; J.L., E.B.C.-C., J.N.R., and S.A.L. performed research; and J.L., E.B.C.-C., J.N.R., and S.A.L. wrote the paper. The authors declare no conflict of interest. This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. A.P.G. is a Guest Editor invited by the Editorial Board.To whom correspondence should be addressed. Email: [email protected] | December 20, 2016 | vol. 113 | no. 51 | 14507?ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCESSUSTAINABILITY SCIENCEquantify.(10). These impacts pose significant challenges to the continued provisioning of ecosystem services from the ocean: challenges that may seem overwhelming now, but even more so in light of the difficulties in addressing the complex drivers and reversing trends. In short, threats to ocean life and the provision of vital ecosystem services are unquestionably serious and pressures on ocean resources are escalating. Glimmers of Hope for Sustainable Use of the Ocean Despite these daunting challenges, there is reason for cautious hope. Around the globe, many positive changes are underway: awareness, attitudes, and social norms are changing; economic incentives are shifting; efforts to educate consumers are increasing; new policies are leading to stronger mandates and more effective governance, compliance, and enforcement; and practices are changing with the development of better technologies, new products, and business strategies that reflect the circular economy (11), greater engagement of scientists, and improved understanding of trade-offs. As a result, effective models for change based in naturalThe grand challenge for humanity is to meet the basic needs of people in an equitable manner today while simultaneously restoring and maintaining ecosystem functioning for future generations. We must do so in the face of growing numbers of people and the concomitant need for resources, and with environmental changes, such as climate change, already underway. The ocean is integral to this global mission. Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide a range of critical ecosystem services that people depend upon, such as food, oxygen, climate regulation, control of pests, protection from storm surges, recreational opportunities, and cultural value (1, 2). The ocean is home to rich biodiversity and plays key roles in many global processes, from primary production to nutrient cycling to climate and weather (3). Ocean-based activities and livelihoods are both enabled by and affect complex interactions among ecological, social, and economic systems. The global market value of marine and coastal resources and industries is estimated at 3 trillion per year (4). Over 3 billion people depend upon the oceans to provide their primary source of protein, and marine fisheries directly or indirectly employ over 200 million people (4). Other benefits, such as cultural or inspirational values, are harder towww.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.This article arises from the 2016 Annual Sackler Lecture, “Enough with the doom and gloom! Holistic approaches bring hope for people and the ocean,” presented by Jane Lubchenco on March 14, at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC. The lecture was part of the Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium of the National Academy of Sciences, “Coupled Human and Environmental Systems,” held March 14?5. The complete program and video recordings of most presentations are available on the NAS website at www.nasonline.org/Coupled_Human_and_Environmental_Systems. Author contributions: J.L. and S.A.L. designed research; J.L., E.B.C.-C., J.N.R., and S.A.L. performed research; and J.L., E.B.C.-C., J.N.R., and S.A.L. wrote the paper. The authors declare no conflict of interest. This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. A.P.G. is a Guest Editor invited by the Editorial Board.To whom correspondence should be addressed. Email: [email protected] | December 20, 2016 | vol. 113 | no. 51 | 14507?ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCESSUSTAINABILITY SCIENCEquantify.

Leave a Reply