Ength of red blood cell perfused capillaries per area, in accordance
Ength of red blood cell perfused capillaries per area, in accordance with the method proposed by Schmid-Sch bein and colleagues [15]. Five separate fields were examined in each layer.Tumour necrosis factor- At baseline (0 hours) and after 1, 2 and 4 hours, 200 heparinized arterial blood samples were drawn for estimation of plsma levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-. For analysis we used a rat-specific solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (Genzyme Corp., Cambridge, MA, USA) employing the multiple antibody sandwich principle in accordance with the manufactorer’s instructions. A microtitre plate, pre-coated with monoclonal anti-TNF-, was used to capturePage 3 of(page number not for citation purposes)Critical CareVol 10 NoBirnbaum et al.FigureIntestinal microvascular blood flow. Shown is intestinal microvascular blood flow (IMBF) as a percentage of baseline; measurements taken at baseflow line (time point 0 hours) and at 1, 2 and 4 hours after the start of the experiment. CON, control group; DPX, DPX group (endotoxin plus dopexamine); LPS, LPS group (endotoxin infusion only). *P < 0.05 versus baseline; P < 0.05 versus CON; P < 0.05 versus DPX.rat TNF- from test samples. Unbound material was removed by washing with buffer solution. A peroxidase-conjugated polyclonal anti-TNF- antibody, which binds to captured rat TNF, was added. By addition of substrate solution, a peroxidase catalyzed colour change proceeds and the absorbence measured at 450 nm is proportional to the concentration of rat TNF in the sample. A standard curve was obtained by plotting the concentrations of rat TNF- standards versus their absorbences. The TNF- concentration of the samples was determined using this standard curve. Intra-assay reproducibility is indicated by the following coefficients of variation: at rat TNF mass 1,024.4 pg/ml the coefficient was 6.6, and at rat TNF mass of 376.5 pg/ml it was 3.7. The inter-assay reproducibility is indicated by the following coefficients of variation: at rat TNF- mass 766.4 pg/ml the coefficient was 3.8, and at a rat TNF- mass of 168.3 pg/ml it was 6.5.Statistical analysis The data analysis was performed by means of a statistical software package (SigmaStat; Jandel Scientific, Erkrath, Germany). All data were expressed as group mean ?standard error of the mean. After establishing that the data conformed with tests of normality of distribution and equality of variance, they were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Scheff?s test. P < 0.05 value was considered statistically significant.mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared with baseline and compared with controls (Table 1). One hour after endotoxin challenge, MAP levels in DPX group were restored to control levels and remained at this level.Laser Doppler fluxmetry One hour after endotoxin challenge IMBF decreased STI-571MedChemExpress Imatinib (Mesylate) significantly in LPS group to 51 compared with baseline (P < 0.05; PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26577270 Figure 1). At two and four hours after the start of the experiment, we also observed decreased laser Doppler flow in LPS group compared with that in CON group. Animals in DPX group exhibited significantly higher values compared with those in LPS group. Functional capillary density The impairment in FCD due to endotoxin challenge was prevented by dopexamine in the longitudinal muscle layer (+33 in DPX group versus LPS group; P < 0.05) and was also attenuated in the circular muscle layer (+48 in DPX group versus LPS group; P < 0.05; Figure 2). FCD in the intestinal muco.

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